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Anatomy and physiology test 2 notes

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Anatomy and physiology test 2 notes 2401

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detailed lecture notes over... histology types of tissues integumentary system injury repair metabolism glucose catabolism ect.
Anatomy and Physiology with Lab I (Biol 2401 with Burns)
Brian Scoggins
Class Notes
anatomy, Physiology, Lecture Notes, Histology, histology and skin, and histology of epithelium and connective tissue., tissues, four kinds of tissues and their functions, repair, metabolism, glucose catabolism
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Notetaker on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2401 at Tarleton State University taught by Brian Scoggins in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.


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Date Created: 10/13/16
Anatomy and Physiology Histology; types of tissues- epithelial, connective, muscle, neural 1. Epithelial- specialized either for covering/lining body surfaces and cavities, or it is the secretory portion of a gland  Composed of closely packed cells with little or no extracellular matrix o The cells are tightly bound together into continuous sheets of either single or multi- layered cells  It is innervated (has nerve supply) but is avascular (no blood vessels) o Epithelium is dependent on diffusion from blood vessels found in underlying connective tissue for its nourishment and waste removal  Epithelium has an exposed surface and a basal surface, which is attached to an underlying, non- living, adhesive basement membrane: o Basal lamina “glycoprotein” glue secreted by epithelial cells o Reticular lamina collagen fibers secreted by connective tissue  Epithelial cells are highly regenerative unlike most specialized cells, epithelial cells are capable of mitosis and continually divide to replace those damaged or lost Epithelium is classified by: a. Shape squamous(flat), cuboidal, or columnar b. Layers - simple= 1 cell thick… adapted for absorption/filtration and not subjected to wear and tear - Stratified= layered…. Generally protective and found exposed to hostile environments Simple epithelia:  Simple squamous- very thin and permeable, highly adapted to allow diffusion/filtration - In lungs gas exchange - Kidneys filtration membrane - Endothelium lines heart, blood vessels, and lymph vessels  Simple cuboidal- adapted for mainly secretion and some absorption. Found in glands and kidneys  Simple columnar- usually consists of 2 types of cells(1 absorptive, 1 secretive) - Absorptive cells have microvilli which are folds serving to increase surface area - Goblet cells are secretory (mucous) found amongst the other cells  In the respiratory tract, uterus, and some glands are columnar cells with cilia Stratified epithelium- function= protection  Stratified squamous lines mouth, throat, anus, vagina, and covers body Glandular epithelium- gland= 1 too many epithelial cells which produce and secrete some product(2 types)  Exocrine- secretes into a duct(tube), which opens onto a surface (ex. sweat, oil, saliva, digestive, goblets)  Endocrine- no ducts, they secrete into extracellular fluids, their fluids, their secretions are hormones and diffuse into blood stream Glands can be described as unicellular (in humans goblet cells only) or multicellular Glands can also be classified by how their product is discharged:  Merocrine- secrete their products by exocytosis(which does not harm the cell) (ex. sweat or salivary glands)  Apocrine- a part of the cell pinches off with the enclosed secretory product, cell then repairs itself, mammary glands  Holocrine- product keeps accumulating until cell dies and ruptures… so the cell is part of the secretion (oil glands) 2. Connective tissue Function- binding and support; separates tissues; protects and insulates; transports blood Characteristics: - have an extensive extracellular matrix which is non-living with widely separated cells scattered throughout matrix - Highly vascular and innervated (except cartilage) - Do not occur on free surfaces - Nonliving matrix contains fibers - Matrix maintained by scattered cells - Matrix determines the tissues qualities Fibers: a) Collagen fibers- strongest and most abundant… consists od bundles of the protein(collagen) these are flexible but do not stretch b) Elastic fibers- thinner, branching fibers made of elastin proteins; does stretch and recoil c) Reticular fibers- thin, branching collagen fibers from net like mesh Cells: “blast”- refers to immature cells actively secreting extracellular matrix (creating or fixing something)(fibroblast) “clast”- immature cell actively breaking down matrix(destroying something) (fibroclast) “cyte”-mature cell; less active… just maintains the matrix (fibrocyte)  Cells can switch from one to the other cell types: Macrophage- large, immune system cells which are actively phagocytic (eat things) mobile. They seek out damage and or invaders Mast cells- “watch dogs”, they detect invasion and initiate inflammation (and signals macrophages to come fix problems) Types of Connective Tissue- 1. Loose connective tissue- Areolar connective tissue  Most widely distributed; has a semifluid matrix with all 3 types of fibers randomly woven  Serves as a storage reservoir for water and solute  Often found as “packing” between 2 muscles or muscle and skin Adipose  Really just areolar with a lot of adipocytes… primarily an insulator, shock absorber, food reserve 2. Dense connective tissue Dense irregular  Fibers run in all directions, usually found as fascia wrapping muscles, nerves, bones, ect.  Fascia- a sheet of dense irregular connective tissue Dense regular  Fibers run in one direction, built to resist tension in one direction (rope)  Found as: tendons- muscle to bone Ligament- bone to bone Aponeuroses- muscle to muscle Cartilage- (sort of halfway between dense connective tissue and bone) has dense collagen or elastin fiber in a rubbery matrix  There are chondrocytes maintaining this matrix, the chondrocytes live in empty spaces called lacuna surrounded by the matrix  Cartilage is an exception among connective tissue in that it has no blood vessels or nerves; it is supplied by diffusion from a fascia covering called the perichondrium  Consequently cartilage is very slow to heal; does so imperfectly and tends to become mineralized(boney) with age or damage Types of cartilage- 1. Hyaline- most abundant and weakest; covering ends of long bones called articular (together) cartilage  Ends of ribs (connects ribs to sternum)  In nose, trachea and embryonic skeleton 2. Fibrocartilage- strongest, very dense  Found as disk between some bones (vertebrae, pelvic bones, knee joint) 3. Elastic- mostly elastin  Found in ears, auditory tube and epiglottis Blood- a fluid in connective tissue, matrix is called plasma, it has fibers but they don’t solidify until time to clot Osseous tissue- (bone) the widely separated cells are called osteocytes, the matrix is 1/3 collagen 2/3 mineral salts  Bone does have a vascular system with blood vessels running through central canals, perforating canals and canaliculi… to service the cells in each lacuna Functions- support and protect soft tissue - Serves as points of muscle attachment - Mineral storage - Blood cell production 3. Muscle- highly cellular and highly vascular; specialized for contraction Functions- movement, posture, body heat 3 types Skeletal- (striated) body movement, posture Cardiac- heart Smooth- found in walls of hollow organs and blood vessels 4. Neural- a. Neurons- specialized to receive a stimulus, convert it to an impulse and conduct it on. Neurons are the functional units of the nervous system  Perikaryon- cell body contains nucleus and organelles  Axon- long cellular extension that conducts impulses away from perikaryon  Dendrites- branched cellular extensions, receive stimulus, convert it to impulse and conduct it toward perikaryon b. Neuroglial cell- specialized cell which support, protect, nourish or insulate cells Membranes Membrane- multicellular sheets having 2 tissue types 1. Covering and lining membranes- consists of a sheet of epithelium and its underlying connective tissue  Musoca- (mucous membrane) these are “wet” epithelial membranes found lining body cavities, which open to the exterior (ex. digestive, urinary, respiratory, reproduction)  Musoca epithelial cells are tightly joined to each other to prevent invasion and the mucous from their goblet cells lubricate, prevent drying and trap particles  Cutaneous membrane- (skin) a dry epithelial membrane (AKA integumentary system)  serosa (serous membrane)- these are wet membrane which line “closed” body cavities (not open to exterior) - they consist of a parietal layer which covers/lines the body wall and a visceral layer which is next to and covers organs - pleura- lines thoracic cavity/lungs - pericardium- heart - peritoneum- lines abdominopelvic cavity and organs 2. synovial membrane- (bags of fluid) do not contain epithelial tissues, are layers of areolar and adipose tissue  synovial membranes line the cavities within joints and covers tendons. They produce a lubricating and nourishing synovial fluid Integumentary System Integumentary System- the skin and its derivatives (such as hair, nails and glands). Functions:  Protection- is a physical and chemical barrier to abrasion, invasion, dehydration and ultraviolet light.  Temperature regulation- through producing perspiration which lowers body temperature.  Stimulus perception- nerve endings detect: touch, temperature, pressure, etc…  Excretion- perspiration also serves to eliminate bodily wastes.  Synthesis of Vitamin D- conversion of type of cholesterol into vitamin D, happens in epidermis with the help of UV-light.  Blood/ water reservoir- the dermis is extensively vascular and stores large volumes of blood until needed elsewhere. Three layers: -Epidermis- Stratified squamous epithelium -Dermis- dense, irregular, connective tissue, -Hypodermis- areolar and adipose Epidermis- consists of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium cells of 4 types: 1. Keratinocytes- cells which produce a fibrous protein- keratin-> which is a waterproof and abrasion resistant. Most cells in the epidermis are of this type; those at the surface are dead and essentially just bags of keratin. 2. Melanocytes- produce the protein melanin which is the primary cause of skin color. 3. Langerhan’s cells- special macrophages 4. Merkel cells- one type of touch receptors. Epidermis contains 4 or 5 layers depending on location (if a lot of friction it has 5). Starting with the deepest layer: 1. Stratum Basale- this is the mitotic (dividing) layer, it is one cell thick of mostly keratinocytes which are continuously dividing and replacing worn out cells above them. 2. Stratum Spinosum- (~ 8-10) rows of irregularly shaped cells which are beginning to produce keratin 3. Stratum Granulosum- (~ 3-4 rows) of darkly staining cells full of keratin granules, the nuclei are beginning to degenerate now as nourishment source gets further away 4. Stratum Lucidum- (~ 2-3 rows) of clearish cells (only palms and pedal surface) 5. Stratum Corneum- (~ 25 or more rows) of shingle-like cell remnants filled with keratin- this is the protective, “waterproof” outer most layer. (like overlapping shingles on a house) (No blood vessels in epidermis, cells are nourished by diffusion, which is inadequate for the outer 2-3 strata… It takes 2-3 weeks to completely replace all the layers. Dermis- the thicker connective tissue layer beneath the epidermis. Contains both elastin and collagen fibers. 2 regions of dermis: 1. Papillary region- contains dermal papilla, these are projections where the dermis protrudes into or indents the epidermis.  Some papilla contain blood vessels, and/or nerve endings (pain receptors) and /or Meissner’s corpuscles (touch receptors).  These dermal papillae show up as ridges on the superficial surface of the epidermis. These ridges increase friction (for grip), and because the ducts from sweat gland open onto the ridges … the ridges are sweaty (= fingerprints). 2. Reticular region- (dense, irregular, connective tissue, also may have adipocytes, hair follicles, sebaceous and sudoriferous glands.) This region provides the strength (leather) and elasticity to skin.  With age the elasticity lessens and stretched fibers don’t bounce back-they wrinkle. If over stretched, they tear; this is visible as scars called stretch marks. Hypodermis-composed of areolar/adipose which anchor skin to underlying tissues (usually muscle) while still allowing some sliding.  This layer serves as a shock absorber and insulator, due to fat and water content.  Contains Pacinian corpuscles which are nerve endings sensitive to pressure. (Technically the hypodermis is not a part of integument) Skin color- would be essentially clear if not for 3 pigments 1. Carotene- a yellowish pigment which collects in stratum corneum and in adipose 2. Hemoglobin- O car2ying pigment in blood, gives skin its pinkness 3. Melanin- ranged in color from orange to brown to dark brown; everyone has it (except albinos) produced by melanocytes in stratum basale (shield the deeper cells from UV radiation by absorbing it  The amount produced is influenced by - genetics and exposure to UV light (which stimulates an increase in melanin synthesis) Epidermis Derivatives Hair- somewhat protective (in nose/eyelashes or from sun/cold)  Shaft- the visible portion… consists of 3 layers of dead cells, forming keratin “shingles” (essentially stratum granulosum, lucidum, and corneum)  Root- below surface portion, extends at least into dermis (maybe into hypodermis) has same 3 layers of dead cells  Root is surrounded by an extension of the epidermis (strata basale and spinosum) which form a sheath called a follicle  The enlarged root base is called a bulb, it has an indention into it called the papilla of hair  Into the papilla (connective tissue) come blood vessels to nourish the epidermis. It’s the stratum basale in the bulb area f the follicle which produces the cells which become hair  Arrector pilli muscle- smooth muscle attached to follicle and anchored in dermis. It contracts and pulls hair up/out from skin in response to cold/fright  if section of hair is: round= straight; oval=wavy; flat=curly Nails- are also epidermal modifications with very little remaining function  very keratinized dead cells  produced by the stratum basale  nail itself is stratum corneum Glands 1. Sebaceous gland- (oil) exocrine glands usually found in association with a hair follicle. They secrete by holocrine - Secretion is called sebum. Mix of cholesterol, fats, and cell fragments which serve to protect from drying and inhibits bacterial growth 2. Sudoriferous gland- (sweat) mix of water, salts, and organic waste (similar to urine but without urea) functions to eliminate waste and regulate body temperature Types of sudoriferous glands- 1. Eccrine- small, coiled tubular glands  Merocrine secretion method  Found everywhere except lips, nipples, genitals  Sweat is 99% water 2. Apocrine- larger coiled tubes  Apocrine secretion method  Open only into pubic hair follicles  Begin functioning in puberty 3. Ceruminous- modified sudoriferous gland  found in external auditory meatus (ear canals)  secretion reacts with sebum to produce cerumen; a waxy protective substance Injury and tissue repair Contact inhibitor- cells will migrate and divide unless they are in contact with other cells of same tissue type Regeneration- replacement of destroyed tissue with the same kind of tissue Fibrosis- proliferation of fibrous connective tissue; as a repair (scar formation)  a wound which only penetrates as far as the stratum basale is healed by migrating basale cells, no scar Deeper wounds: wounds penetrating into the dermis 1. Inflammation- damaged cells (and mast cells) release histamine which causes vascular dilation and increases blood capillaries permeability  This allows more blood to enter the wound  Blood clot forms, sealing wound from both external world and from surrounding healthy tissue  Scab- dead tissue and clotted blood 2. Organization- the surviving adjacent cells divide and migrate beneath the dead tissues  New basale later is formed beneath the dead (necrotic) tissue  New blood vessels grow into the area  Fibroblasts migrate creating new fibrous networks  The repaired connective tissues that do not “match” the original are called granulation tissues (scar tissues) 3. Regeneration and Fibrosis-  Epidermis replaces itself perfectly through regeneration  Connective tissues are replaced by fibrosis  The scar may be visible or not visible depending on the severity of the wound Tissue repair is dependent on the type of tissue - Epidermis replaces itself perfectly through regeneration - Connective- repairs strong and fairly rapidly; scarring occurs - Muscle and nerve- do not replace destroyed cells; just seal it off with connective tissue and work around it Burns- tissue damaged by heat, electrical, chemicals, or radiation  Burns destroy to some degree the epidermis, allowing microbial invasion, extensive fluid, electrolyte, protein loss, and loss of temperature control  The immediate danger is loss of fluids and solutes (dehydration)  Fluid loss reduces the volume of blood and blood thickens  Blood pressure drops  Will cause renal shutdown (kidney failure) and shock and toxic poisoning  After fluid replacement and about 24 hours, the next major danger is infection Burns are classified by depth and surface area percentage 1 degree burn- superficial strata, little to no scarring and pain 2 degree burn- some dermal damage; pain and mild scarring 3 degree burn- integumentary system (or more) destroyed; little to no pain; dry charred appearance; extensive scarring; slow healing with possible need for skin grafts; possible death Cancer Tumor/neoplasm- an extensive growth due to uncontrolled cell division Benign tumor- usually harmless because the cells are unlikely to spread to other parts of the body (stay clumped) Metastasize- migration of cancer cells to other parts of the body; produces secondary/multiple tumors Malignant tumor- one that is likely to metastasize; often the cause of death is that the tumor crowds out the functionally necessary cells Metabolism Nutrition- a chemical substance used by the body to provide energy, promote growth, maintenance, repair, or aid in the functioning of normal body processes 6 categories 1. Carbohydrates- source: primarily plants and animals 2. Lipids- source: saturated- animal; unsaturated- plant 3. Proteins- source: plants/animals; usage: structural and regulatory molecules 4. Water- solvent, reactant, lubricant, temperature regulator, ect. 5. Vitamins- organic molecules the body cant synthesize but needed for normal metabolism; often they are part of an enzyme; must consume them or their precursor 6. Minerals-are necessary inorganic elements or small molecules which are often used as - Essential portions of larger molecules - Ions - Or to mineralize such things as bones Metabolism- the sum total of all the chemical reactions occurring within an organism - Anabolism- synthesis(build up reactions) which consume energy (creating bonds) - Catabolism- decomposition or breakdown reactions which release energy (breaking bonds) that was stored in the chemical bonds Enzymes Activation energy- the energy required to start a reaction Enzyme- biological catalyst  A catalyst is something which lowers the needed activation energy and thus increases reaction rates without getting “used up”  Most enzymes are proteins… therefore control of the production of these proteins is the major bodily control over metabolism  Enzymes are very substrate specific-they catalyze only specific reactions and reactants (substrates)  Enzymes are named (usually) by adding the suffix “-ase” to the substrate they act on (lipase, peptiase, sucrase, DNAse)  Enzymes work primarily by bringing the substrates together and orienting them… thereby increasing the likelihood of collision and thus of chemical reaction Carbohydrate metabolism - Digestion reduces polysaccharides to monosaccharides… these are then absorbed and transported to the liver where all monosaccharides are converted into glucose Glucose catabolism- glucose arrives in the cytoplasm primarily by facilitated diffusion (the facilitator protein is insulin  As glucose is broken down completely the energy released is stored in bonds of ATP and some releases heat  Glucose + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water + ATP + heat  C H O + O  CO + H O + ATP + heat 6 12 2 2 2 2  Oxygen and enzymes are required to perform this reaction 3 steps of glucose catabolism (occurs inside the cells) 1. Glycolysis- series of chemical reactions, which convert a 6-carbon glucose into two 3-carbon molecules, called pyruvic acid and has 2 net ATP molecules  this takes place in the cytoplasm and occurs under aerobic (with oxygen) or anaerobic (without oxygen) conditions  under aerobic conditions, these pyruvic acids then go on to the next step, which is Krebs cycle  under anaerobic conditions, the pyruvic acids are converted into lactic acid  if anaerobic conditions persist there will be a buildup of lactic acid  if lactic acid levels get too high, muscle cramps will occur 2. Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle)- another long series of reactions which catabolize pyruvic acid into CO 2nd some ATP is produced along with several intermediate (temporary) energy storing molecules  the CO is 2hat we exhale and is waste product of the Krebs cycle 3. Electron transport- another series of reactions during which the hydrogens which were removed from glucose in steps 1 and 2 are used to supply the force to produce many ATP  at the end of electron transport those hydrogens are disposed of by attaching them to O 2 (producing water)  so electron transport is the O con2uming step and the reason we must breathe oxygen Net result of glycolysis= 2 ATP per glucose Net result of Krebs and electron transport= 36 ATP (per glucose) Net result of glucose catabolism= 38 ATP if oxygen is present Over all: ~43% of the energy in the bonds of glucose is “trapped” in the bonds of ATP, the remaining ~63% escapes as heat Calorie- a unit of measurement used to express the heat value of food; it is also used to describe metabolic rates since the amount of heat being produced is directly tied to the rate of glucose catabolism. Cal= kiloclalorie; cal= calorie C=kilocalorie= 1000 calories


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