The Self, Identity, Emotions, and Personality
The Self, Identity, Emotions, and Personality Psych 30651
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amy Turk on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 30651 at Kent State University taught by Haylee DeLuca in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Adolescent Psychology in Psychology at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/16
THE SELF, IDENTITY, EMOTIONS, AND PERSONALITY ● Self = all the characteristics of a person ● Self understanding = the individual’s cognitive representation of the self, the substance, and content of self-conceptions ○ Based on various roles, or memberships to organizations Dimensions of Self-Understanding ● Abstraction and idealism ○ Compared to children ● Differentiation ○ Overtime teens are more likely to know contextual or situational variations ● The Fluctuating Self ○ Your view of yourself is unstable ○ Mood and disposition ● Contradictions within the self ● Real vs. Ideal self ○ Healthy or unhealthy? ■ Possible self = ideas about who the individual might become vs who they would like to become ● Also includes people you don’t want to become ● Motivation for who they want to become ● Can gear towards specific behaviors that make them more likely to achieve their ideal self ○ Can produce a sense or failure or a lot of self criticism, which can result in depression ● True vs. False Self ○ Present false self to impress others, try out new roles ○ Being fake ○ Trying to impress their close friends or potential dating partners ● Social comparison ○ Thinking about how others are evaluating them ○ Looking glass self = an individual’s beliefs about how others view them ○ Most teens don’t admit to doing this ■ Think it’ll make them less popular ■ Don’t think this is a socially desirable behavior ○ Can be really confusing because there are so many social comparisons that they can make ● Self consciousness ○ Become more self conscious about anything that can be observed in public ■ Anything that other people can see ○ Speech ○ Appearance ● Self protection ○ Don’t pay attention to their negative characteristics, and instead focus on their positive characteristics ● Self awareness ○ How an individual is aware of their strengths and weaknesses ○ Helps them engage in problem solving ● Self-esteem = global evaluative dimension of the self ● Self-concept = domain-specific evaluations of the self ○ Susan Harter ■ Developed a measure for adolescents called the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents ● Scholastic ● Athletic ● Social acceptance ● Physical appearance ● Conduct ● Close relationships ● Romantic appeal ● Job competence ● Self esteem reflects perceptions ○ Do not always match reality ● Narcissism = self-centered approach toward others ○ Self congratulatory ○ Difficult for them to show empathy toward anyone else ○ Some research supports that teens and emerging adults are more narcissistic and self centered now than in the past Changes in Self Esteem ● Self-esteem fluctuates across the life span ○ Often decreases during transition ● Girls have lower self esteem than boys ○ Especially in adolescence ○ Girls take more of an interest in social relationships ■ Not rewarded in western society ○ Puberty ■ More negative body images ● The best predictor of your self esteem is physical appearance Social Contexts Linked To Self-Esteem ● Family ○ Parenting ● Peers ○ Approval ○ Larger group has more of an impact on esteem than your close friends ● School transitions ○ Decrease in self esteem Consequences of Low Self-Esteem ● For most teens, it’s temporary ● If it persists… ○ Depression ○ Suicide ○ Anxiety ○ Delinquency Improving Self-Esteem ● Identifying the causes of low self-esteem and the domains of competence important to the self ● Providing emotional support and social approval ● Fostering achievement ● Helping adolescents to cope ○ Not avoid Erikson ● Identity vs identity confusion ○ Psychosocial moratorium = the gap between childhood security & adult autonomy ■ Adolescents try out different roles and personalities ■ By late adolescence, vocational roles often become the concentration of identity development ■ Identity involves many components ● Successful = formation of a new sense of self ● Unsuccessful = identity confusion ○ Withdrawal from peers or immerse themselves in peer relationships until they lose their own identity The Four Statuses of Identity ● James Marcia ○ Stressed that Erikson’s identity development theory could end in four results ○ Uses crisis and commitment to classify individuals into four different groups ■ Crisis = choosing among a lot of possibilities ■ Commitment = has a personal investment ● Identity Diffusion ○ No crisis ○ No commitment ○ Doesn’t care or hasn’t thought about who they are ● Identity Foreclosure ○ Made commitment ○ No crisis ○ Ex. parents who decide who they want to become ○ No opportunities to explore ● Identity Moratorium ○ In crisis ○ No commitment ○ Changes their mind constantly ● Identity Achievement ○ Undergoes crisis ○ Results in a commitment ● The key changes in identity take place later on in adolescence or in emerging adulthood ● The first identity an individual commits to is not necessarily their final ○ People cycle through these changes, especially when experiencing difficulty in their life Family Influences ● Parenting styles ○ Individuality ■ Self assertion = ability to have point of view ■ Separateness = being unique ○ Connectedness ■ Mutuality = be sensitive to and respect the other’s views ● Mutual understanding ○ Permeability = open to those views ● Ethnic identity = aspect of the self that includes a sense of membership in an ethnic group ○ Bicultural identity = teens identify in some ways with their ethnic group and in other ways with the majority culture ○ attitudes , beliefs, and feelings related to that group Gender ● Males oriented toward careers ● Women = marriage and childbearing ● Supported by research in 60s and 70s Emotional Development ● Emotion = feelings ○ Characterized by behaviors ○ General or specific ○ Vary in intensity ● Early adolescence = emotional highs and lows occur more frequently ○ Moodiness ● Hormonal changes ● Pubertal changes = associated with an increase in negative emotions ● Both hormonal and environmental changes are important ● Emotional competence ○ More likely to be aware of their emotional cycles ○ Become more skilled at presenting their emotions to others ○ Awareness that emotional expression plays a role in relationships ○ Adaptive coping ○ Inner emotional states do not have to correspond to outer expressions ○ Being aware of one’s emotional states without being overwhelmed by them ○ Being able to discern other’s emotions ● Personality = enduring personal characteristics of people ○ Encompasses the self and identity ● 5 factors = OCEAN ○ Openness to experiences (tolerant) ○ Conscientiousness ○ Extraversion ○ Agreeableness ○ Neuroticism Temperament ● A person’s behavioral style and characteristic way of responding ○ 3 types ■ Easy child ■ Difficult child ■ Slow to warm up child ● In the middle ● Low activity level ● Goodness of fit ○ Positive adjustment = effortful control, agreeableness ○ Negative adjustment = negative emotionality
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