Popular in Adolescent Psychology
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Popular in Psychology
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amy Turk on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 30651 at Kent State University taught by Haylee DeLuca in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Adolescent Psychology in Psychology at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/16
GENDER ● Gender = sociocultural and psychological dimensions of being male or female ● Gender role = expectations that prescribes how females and males should think, act, and feel ● Pubertal change and sexuality ○ Puberty impacts sexual aspects of attitudes and behaviors ■ Behavior toward the opposite sex ■ Hormonal changes ● Males and females faced different environmental pressures ○ Males ■ Multiple sexual relationships ■ Compete with other males ○ Females ■ Goal of acquiring resources for offspring ● Social role theory = gender differences mainly result from the contrasting roles of females and males ● Parental influences ○ Differences in raising boys and girls ○ Socialization ■ Mothers socialize daughters to be more obedient, responsible ■ Fathers focus on intellectual development and activities Social Cognitive Theory of Gender ● Gender development is influenced by observation and imitation of others’ gender behavior ○ Rewards and punishments for gender-appropriate behavior and gender-inappropriate behavior ● More social influences ○ Siblings ■ Siblings became more similar to older siblings in gender-role and leisure activity ○ Peers ■ In middle and late childhood preference for spending time with same-gendered peers ■ Peer approval and disapproval can influence gender attitudes/behavior ○ Schools and teachers ■ Is the classroom biased against boys? ● A large number of teachers are females ● Boys are more likely to have learning problems ● Boys are more likely than girls to be criticized ● School personnel tend to ignore boys having academic problems ● School personnel tend to stereotype boys’ behavior as problematic ■ Is the classroom biased against girls? ● Teachers spend more time watching and interacting with boys ● Boys get more instruction and help when they have difficulties ● Boys are more likely to get lower grades and to repeat grades, but girls are less likely to believe they will be successful in college ■ Single-sex education ● Reduces gender harassment ● Research doesn’t suggest that single-sex education is helping ○ Mass media influences ■ Television ● Often extremely stereotyped when they portray males and females ● Early adolescence is a time of heightened sensitivity to TV messages ○ Men are portrayed as powerful and dominant ■ musc ular ○ Female characters are more passive ● TV has idealized characters with whom adolescents can identify ■ MIV ● Portrays females in a negative way ○ Pretty and successful ○ Portrayed as sexual objects ○ Has an impact on body image Cognitive Influences on Gender ● Gender schema theory = gender-typing emerges as individuals develop gender schemas of what is gender-appropriate and gender- inappropriate in their culture ○ Gender schema = organizes the world in terms of female and male ● Individuals are motivated to perceive the world and act in accordance with developing schemas ● Gender stereotypes = broad categories that reflect our impressions and beliefs about females and males ○ Often general and ambiguous ○ Often change when cultural change occurs ○ Pervasive ● Females show greater academic interest and achievement than males in the US ● Physical ○ Women have twice as much body fat ○ Men are 10% taller than women ■ Have greater physical strength ● Health ○ Women have longer life expectancies ■ Less likely to develop physical disorders ○ Men have higher levels of stress hormones ■ Higher blood pressure ● Academics ○ Math = no one gender is better ■ Girls have more negative attitude towards math than boys ● Probably due to this stereotypes ■ Parents and teachers have different expectations ■ Girls are less likely to take advantage of advanced math classes ● Less likely to enter these fields ● Visuospatial skills = being able to rotate objects mentally and determine what they look like if they’re altered in some way ○ Similar, but boys still show better skills ● Reading and writing ○ Females outperform males ○ Females show greater academic interest and achievement than males in the US ● Females more likely to go to college Socioemotional Similarities & Differences ● Aggression ○ Boys are more physically aggressive across cultures ○ Some studies suggest girls engage in more relational aggression ● Communication in relationships ○ Rapport talk = the language of conversation and a way of establishing connections and negotiating relationships ○ Report talk = talk that gives information ● Play ○ Boys ■ Large groups with hierarchial structures ■ Games have winners and losers ■ Often brag about their skills ○ Girls ■ Tend to play in small groups or pairs ■ Intimacy is important ■ Turn-taking is more characteristic in games ● Prosocial behavior = kind and considerate behavior ○ Girls ○ More empathy for other people ● Emotion ○ Females are better at decoding emotions than males ○ Girls express their emotions openly as a way of dealing with them ● Gender behavior varies across contexts ○ Helping behavior ■ Males more likely to help if the situation is dangerous ● More likely if they feel like they can ○ Competent ■ Females more likely to help in volunteering situations ○ Display of emotions ■ Males more likely to be angry if they feel they are being challenged ● More likely to get angry at a stranger ○ Culture ■ Some cultures have very different gender roles Masculinity, Femininity, and Androgyny ● In the past… ○ Masculine = independent, aggressive, powerful ○ Feminine = dependent, nurturing, uninterested in power ● 1970s = change in stereotyped gender roles ○ Androgyny = the presence of a high degree of masculine and feminine characteristics in the same individual ● The Bem Sex-Role Inventory was developed to assess androgyny ○ Four categories ■ Masculine ● Dominant ● Aggressive ● Willing to take risks ■ Feminine ● Affectionate ● Loves children ● Understanding ● gentle ■ Androgynous ● More flexible ● More mentally healthy ● Have both traits ■ Undifferentiated ● Traits depend on context ○ One of the most important contexts to consider is culture Gender Roles & Culture ● More children and adolescents in the US are androgynous ● Traditional gender roles still predominant in many countries ● Even in US, cultural background of adolescents determine how boys and girls are socialized ● Females still receive less education than males as a whole ● Can and should androgyny be taught to students? ○ Easier to teach to girls ○ Easier to teach before middle school ● Many say traditional sex-typing is harmful for all students ● Is there a negative side to traditional masculinity? ○ “Boy code” exists ○ Tend to exhibit more behavior problems ● Gender Role Transcendence = When a person’s competence is at issue, it should be conceptualized on a person bases rather than on the basis of masculinity, femininity, or androgyny ● Gender intensification hypothesis = psychological and behavioral difference between boys and girls become greater during early adolescence because of increased socialization pressures to conform to traditional masculine and feminine gender roles ● Is early adolescence a critical juncture for females? ○ Carol Gilligan ■ Argued that girls experience life differently than boys ■ Adolescence is a critical juncture for females ■ Criticisms ● Overemphasize gender differences ● Research strategies ● Reinforces stereotypes
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