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Psyc 1550, Chapter 6 notes

by: Kelby Orlando

Psyc 1550, Chapter 6 notes Psyc 1500

Kelby Orlando

GPA 3.0

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About this Document

These notes will be on Exam 2.
Intro to Psychology
Dr. Gabriel
Class Notes
Intro to Psychology
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelby Orlando on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 1500 at Lakeland Community College taught by Dr. Gabriel in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Lakeland Community College.


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Date Created: 10/13/16
Chapter 6: Memory and Its Processes Encoding- g ​ etting info into our brain in the first place. Storage- (What to do with it)- ​where we put the encoding;​ ​involves maintaining encoded information in memory over time Retrieval- (getting the info when needed) ​involves receiving information from memory stores Sensory memory-​ the point at which information enters the nervous system through the sensory systems (large capacity, short duration) - Capacity : how much info the storage box can hold ​(Huge- everything going on around you) - Duration: how long the box can hold it (​everything gets quickly pushed out by new info)- lasts about half a second to a second Short-term memory (STM)​- the memory system in which information is held for brief periods of time while being used - Capacity: around ​7 pieces​ of info (7 is magic number) - Duration: about ​12-30 seconds​ without rehearsal Long-term memory (LTM)-​ the memory system into which all the information is placed to be kept more or less permanently - Capacity: ​ nlimited - Duration: ​years Types of LTM ● Nondeclarative (implicit) memory- ​type of long-term memory including memory for skills, procedures, habits and conditioned responses ​(How to) ● Procedural Memory- ​ (often called implicit memory) memory that is not easily brought into conscious awareness ● Declarative (explicit) memory​- type of long-term memory containing information that is conscious and known ​(Ex. How are you today?) ● Semantic Memory- ​declarative memory containing general knowledge ​(Ex. High School graduation- diploma, speech, cap and gown) ● Episodic Memory- ​declarative memory containing ​personal information​ not readily available to others ​(Ex. high school graduation- YOUR diploma, YOUR speech, YOUR cap and gown) Organization of Memories LTM- ​is organized in terms of related meanings Semantic network model- ​assumes that information is stored in the brain in a connected fashion - Concepts that are related stored physically closer to each other than to unrelated concepts Encoding Specificity- ​tendency for memory of information to be improved if related information ​(surroundings or physiological state) ​available when the memory was first formed is also available when the memory is being retrieved (environment you learned in is how you will remember stuff you studied) Remembering: Recognition: ​ability to match a piece of information or a stimulus to a stored image or fact (list of the seven dwarfs with list help) ​(mult. choice) Recall: ​memory retrieval in which the info to be retrieved must be “pulled” from memory with very few external cues​ ​(asked the names of dwarfs without a list) ​(Essay tests) - Retrieval failure- ​recall has failed (at least temporarily) - Tip of tongue phenomenon - Serial position effect-​ information at the beginning and the end of a body of information more accurately remembered than the information in the middle - Primacy effect-​ remember ​beginning​ information better than what follows - Recency effect-​ remember ​ending​ better than the information ahead of it Eyewitness Testimony Elizabeth Loftus - Should that what people see and hear about an event after the fact can easily affect the accuracy of their memories of that event - Demonstrated that eyewitness testimony is not always reliable - Changed the “verb”- hit, smashed. Received different answered - Change in one word can change testimony Automatic Encoding-​ tendency of certain kinds of information to enter long-term memory with little or no effortful encoding Flashbulb memories-​ automatic encoding that occurs because an unexpected event has strong emotional associations for the person remembering it. (seem accurate, aren’t always the most accurate memories) Misinformation effect-​ tendency of misleading information presented after an event to alter the memories of the event itself (crooked nose story) False memory syndrome- ​creation of inaccurate or false memories through the suggestion of others (Pastor/daughter story) - Evidence suggests that false memories cannot be created for just any kind of memory - Memories must at least be plausible Curve of Forgetting​- a graph showing a distinct pattern in which forgetting is very fast within the first hour after learning a list and then tapers off gradually - Distributed practice- spacing one’s study sessions - Produces better retrieval - Massed practice- studying a complete body of information all at once Encoding Failure​- failure to process information into memory (what a stop sign looks like) Memory Trace- ​ physical change in the brain that occurs when a memory is formed - decay/discuss: loss of memory due to the passage of time, during which the memory trace is not used Interference: Proactive: can’t remember the 2nd thing learned because the 1st gets in the way Retroactive: can’t remember the 1st thing learned because the 2nd gets in the way Formation of LTMs Consolidation-​ changes that take place in the structure and functioning of neurons when a memory is formed - Long-term potentiation- changes in number and sensitivity of receptor sites/synapses through repeated stimulation Hippocampus- ​area of brain responsible for the formation of LTMs Amnesia ● Retrograde amnesia-​ loss of memory from the point of some injury or trauma backwards, or loss of memory for the past ● Anterograde amnesia-​ loss of memory from the point of injury or trauma forward, or the inability to form new long-term memories ● Infantile amnesia-​ the inability to retrieve memories from much before age three Health and Memory Sleep is important in forming memories - Memories rehearsed during sleep as well as during waking are more likely to be consolidated - One can’t learn something new while sleeping, ut new information can be better while sleeping, but new information can be better consolidated while sleeping - Sleep deprivation severely interferes with hippocampal function and memory Even brief exercise can be good for your memory Fish is brain food - Omega-3 fatty acid called DHA appears to help memory calls communicate


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