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Bio anth week 7 notes

by: Victoria Jackson

Bio anth week 7 notes ANTH 2414

Marketplace > Texas State University > ANTH > ANTH 2414 > Bio anth week 7 notes
Victoria Jackson
Texas State
GPA 3.2

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About this Document

mechanisms of evolution as well as disciplines of certain professions
Biological Anthropology
Nicholas Herrmann
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Jackson on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 2414 at Texas State University taught by Nicholas Herrmann in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Biological Anthropology in ANTH at Texas State University.


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Date Created: 10/13/16
Lecture Notes 10.6.16 (chapter 10) • Adaptive Significance of Human Variation ● Human variation is the result of an interplay b/w genetics and adaptations to environmental conditions ● Physiological response to the environment operates at two levels: Long-term: evolutionary change characterizes all individuals within a population or species Short-term: temporary physiological response is called acclimatization • Homeostasis ● A condition of stability within a biological system maintained by the interaction of physiological mechanicals that compensate for changes ● Stress is the body’s response to any factor that threatens its ability to maintain homeostasis • Acclimatization ● Physiological response to changes in the environment ● Responses may be temporary or permanent, depending on the environmental change ● Because it is under genetic influence, acclimatization is subject to evolutionary factors such as natural selection and genetic drift. • Thermal Environment ● Mammals and birds have evolved complex physiological mechanisms to maintain a constant body temp ● Humans are found in a wide variety of thermal environments ranging from 120 F to -60 F ● Human response to heat ○ Long-term adaptations to heat evolved in our ancestors: sweat glands and vasodilation • Bergmann’s rule ● body size tends to be greater in populations that live in cold environments • Allen’s Rule ● In colder climates, shorter appendages are adaptive because they are more effective at preventing heat loss ● Conversely, longer appendages are more adaptive in warmer climates because they promote heat loss ● Ex: San women have linear proportions characteristic of many inhabitants of sub-Saharan Africa ● Ex: by comparison, Inuit women are short and stocky • Human response to Cold and Heat ● Short-term responses to cold ● Metabolic rate and shivering ● Narrowing of blood vessels to reduce blood flow from the skin and increase blood pressure— vasoconstriction ● Increases in metabolic rate to release energy in the form of heat ● Vasodilation- reduction of blood vessels which decreases blood pressure 10/11/2016 ● Can happen simultaneously, four mechanisms ○ Mutation- adds NEW variation ○ Genetic drift- increase between pop variation, decrease within pop variation ○ Gene flow- reverse of genetic drift ○ Natural selection- acts on variation ● Hardy-Weinberg ○ Establishes a set of condition in a population where no evolution occurs (gene frequencies will remain the same) ■ The pop must be large (no genetic drift) ■ No mutation ■ No gene flow ■ Natural selection isn’t happening ■ Mating is random ● F(st) ○ A statistical measure of the fraction of variation found between samples ■ 0 means no genetic differences ■ 1 means the pops are completely different ○ Nuclear dna loci ranges from 0.03 to 0.17 ● Mutation requires two things ○ Time ○ Large population ● Balanced polymorphism ○ The maintenance of two or more alleles in a population due to the selective advantage of the heterozygote. ○ Ex. Sickle cell ● The role of environment in the phenotype ○ P=g+e ○ Phenotypic variation= genetic variation+environmental variation ○ Heritability is crucial here ■ How much of the phenotypic variation in a trait is due to genetic variation among individuals. Applied skeletal biology ○ Bioarchaeology ○ Forensic anthropology ● Bioarchaeology ○ The study of human remains recovered from archaeological context ■ These can range from 100-10000 years ■ Understand the variability in these individuals or pops ● Health ● biodistance/genetic disease ● Life history ○ Often work is completed as a result of development or research ○ Coordination between federal, or state agency, landowner, and/or descendant groups ○ Various stakeholders are involved in the process ○ Goals of Bioarchaeology ■ Demography ■ Diet ■ Disease ■ Distance ● Biological relationships-variation ● Forensic Anthropology ○ The application of biological anthropology in a medico-legal setting ■ Goals: ● Identify and assess remains ● Estimate time of death ● Develop a biological profile *Test on tuesday oct.18


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