New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

SPAA 418 Notes 2

by: Molly O'Keefe

SPAA 418 Notes 2 SPAA 418

Molly O'Keefe
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

Notes for part of exam 2
Class Notes




Popular in

Popular in Speech Language Pathology

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Molly O'Keefe on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SPAA 418 at Ball State University taught by McGrath in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see in Speech Language Pathology at Ball State University.

Similar to SPAA 418 at BSU

Popular in Speech Language Pathology


Reviews for SPAA 418 Notes 2


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/13/16
SPAA 418 Exam two  Dementia o Also called generalized intellectual impairment o Dementia is an umbrella term for acquired disorders, characterized by progressive deterioration in several cognitive domains o Across the board there is a reduction of  Mental faculties, personality changes, emotional lability, dull bland behavior, memory loss o Neurocognitive Disorder  New term for dementia according to DSM-5  Most practitioners and organizations still use dementia  Alzheimer’s Association  Still a group of symptoms that will accompany other diseases or diagnoses o Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder-4  In order to be classified as dementia  Memory must be impaired and  At least one of the following must also be impaired:  Abstract thinking  Judgment  Higher cortical functions  Personality  DSM-5 same as major versus minor neurocognitive disorder-early detection o Dementia effects on language  Restricted vocabulary  Limited to small talk and steteotypic phrases  Perseveration  Word finding difficulty  Naming problems o Dementia effects on cognition  Memory loss (recent or remote memory loss)  Time and place disorientation  Most people are A + O x 3 o A = Alert o O = Oriented o x3 = Self (you know who you are), Time (what time and day and month it is), Place (where you’re at) o They usually lose time first and then place then self  Intellectual decline  Faulty judgement  Personality may be bland and dull  Emotional lability  Great deficits in the right hemisphere functioning  Spatial orientation and direction  Facial recall  Patterns  Difficulty grasping global concepts o Neurological changes in dementia  Some clients have more than one neurological change occurring  This would increase the progression of dementia 2  Types of neurological changes  Tangles: Dendrites and axons become twisted, tangles and contorted o Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s  Plaques: Minute areas of tissue decline o Found in cortex and subcortical areas o Synapses are reduced o Alzheimer’s, Down’s syndrome, aging  Degeneration: Small fluid-filled cavities appear within nerve cells o Common in subcortical regions  Atrophy: Brain begins to shrink- loss of tissue o Very common in AIDS related dementia o Etiologies of dementia (Diseases that lead to/cause dementia)  Alzheimer’s (1906 by Alois Alzheimer)  Typically causes ventricles to enlarge and regions of the brain to lose tissue, form tangles of the dendrites, reduce neurotransmitters or atrophy of the basal ganglia  Clinical Presentation: Slow, insidious onset and proceeds steadily until death. Duration of disease varies- death typically occurs approx. 10 years after diagnosis. No known cure  Heterogeneous disease (looks different in everyone). Medication can reduce the deficits temporarily (especially memory loss)  Risk factors: age, heredity, genetics, head injury Aphasia Video 3  Bob: was aware he said something that didn’t make any sense when it happened, he couldn’t do anything, wasn’t seeing well, he was in the ICU for 5 days, he couldn’t say his daughters name, he thought he was going to go right back to who he used to be, he would cry when he couldn’t get it, it would get better by each week, he would yell and get mad, he couldn’t read the New York times like he did every day, he has gotten better at talking but he is trying hard to answer questions people have or respond to them, he would be great for 2 days then for 3 straight days he could do anything and he’d be frustrated and angry,  Chris: had a car accident 18 years ago, 1/6 brain is damage, had a stroke the day after the accident, he couldn’t talk at all, speech is still choppy,  Kate: deer came through the windshield, car hit a stump and turned around, deer in the car, several hemorrhages in the brain, she was in a coma for 2 months, did lots of surgeries, had amnesia, she would call her daughter mommy, she was starting to be 6 months, a year, etc old when she was coming out of the coma, she said she knew nothing, she couldn’t say flashcards, couldn’t say anything in the beginning, still works with her writing, “ya know” a lot, when she sits with a psychologist she would talk and talk and talk,  Jane: started to get a headache and it got worse and worse, she fell asleep in the car, she heard all of her family crying, she woke up and had been crying, did not know where she was, she was in the hospital, said it hurt and she was mad, she could not speak, she was scared to go home, she cried and said she didn’t want to go home, believes her kids and husband are still hurting from the stroke, her kids are more than 20 years old and they still cry about it, her husband cries when he talks about it, the family is part of the person that has the stroke, she had to learn to walk and speak and now she can, she is so happy, she says she is happier now after the stroke, she has learned a lot of new things 4  3 major stages of dementia: Multiple methods of discussing the stages, some have 13 different stages o Stage 1: Early or mild stage  Client sense a decline  Reluctant to be tests, trying to hide the problem  Disoriented to time  Memory for recent events begins to fail  Rely on over-learned situations and stereotypic utterance  Topic jump  Slightly reduced vocabulary  Word finding difficulties  Minor loss of a desire to communicate  This stage resembles behaviors that you & I might exhibit when we are tired or have a fever but we would only have one or two of these problems. Very minor deficits, but the client is exhibiting multiple deficits o Stage 2: Middle or Moderate Stage  More noticeable memory loss  Disorientation to time and place  Increase in perseveration (repeating) of motor & speech behaviors  Non-meaningful speech, empty talk  Does not correct errors  Significant decrease in variety of vocabulary  Semantic naming errors, call a pan a “pot”  Verbal paraphasia  Diminished eye contact  Egocentric: everything revolved around them 5  Like to touch objects o Stage 3: Last or advanced stage  Disoriented x3 (person, place and time)  Fail to recognize family and friends  Can’t carry out daily routines  Need extensive personal care  Go in and out of cognitive awareness  Some become non-speaking  Lots of jargon  Lack of social awareness  Final part of this stage- in a vegetative state- tube feed  There is no set period of time that each stage will occur, every client is different, progression of etiology, genetics and environment all have an influence on progression o Multi-Infarct Dementia (MID)  Multiple small CVAs that occur throughout the brain  Appear as millions of pinpoint lesions on CT scans  Reduction in active brain tissues, widespread  Clinical Presentation:  Occurs more abruptly than Alzheimer’s  Patient may complain of confusion, gait disturbances, apraxia, transient aphasia episodes, and incontinence  No cure of MID except prevention of underlying causes (i.e. hypertension)  Depression 6


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.