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Week 8 (October 09-14) - International Relations

by: Ricardo Rauseo

Week 8 (October 09-14) - International Relations INR2001

Marketplace > University of Florida > INR2001 > Week 8 October 09 14 International Relations
Ricardo Rauseo
GPA 3.8

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About this Document

These notes cover what we saw on Week 8: The Post-Cold War Order
Introduction to International Relations
Sjoberg,Laura E
Class Notes
International, relations, intro
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ricardo Rauseo on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to INR2001 at University of Florida taught by Sjoberg,Laura E in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views.


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Date Created: 10/13/16
Monday, October 10, 2016 NSC-68  National Security Document o Major defining document for the US in 1950  What is happening ten and how does it affect the decisions? o We have to do a lot more to defend the Western Hemisphere  Severely weaken the ability of the Soviet Union to carry out a war  Slow down any advance by USSR  Provide aid to allies  Keep supply lines open o What is happening  Czechoslovakia is a communist state from the USSR  The Berlin blockage  Soviet Union has nuclear weapons  North Korea invades South Korea  Globalization of Truman doctrine  Containment was political strategy- needed to be backed by military power Implications of NSC-68  Would need to expand military and intelligence capabilities  Would need a lot of allies and bases around the world  Containment would be as much a military strategy as it was political  Big focus on Asia after China goes communist and Korean War  Led to a lot of actions in the developing world, competition for influence  Especially important as France and Britain’s colonies become independent o They are losing control of their power abroad  US would not tolerate states falling under Soviet influence and would try to prevent this. Soviet Union did the same Nuclear weapons  US monopoly for early cold war- most thought it could rely on that o They had the upper hand  Changed with USSR nuclear weapons in 1948 o The threat to the Soviet Union then was “Don’t bother me, I have a wall of nuclear weapons to defend myself with” o If you want to deter someone from acting, you have to have credible threats  And nuclear weapon use wasn’t realistic  Eisenhower- rely on strategy of massive retaliation  What was the flaw in the strategy?  If not massive retaliation, then what?  Flexible response to be able to deal with Soviet Union on a variety of levels  But disparity in nuclear weapons leads USSR to try to make up the difference by placing some in Cuba Cuban Missile Crisis  USSR behind the US in missile tech and number of weapons  US had some advantage in placement of missiles near USSR  When Cuba goes communist in 1959, USSR sees an opportunity- could then target all of the US  US finds out what is happening in 1962 and this leads to very tense stand-off  Kennedy face with some bad options: Do nothing or risk war that could destroy the world o He looked really weak if he didn’t do anything o He had been humiliated by Khrushchev once before  Unexperienced  What other options were there and what was decided upon? o Missiles were taken from Cuba o The US removes missiles from Turkey  What would you have done?  Result drove both sides to improve communication and avoid confrontations like this in the future. o Without undermining allies o Without looking weak o Moscow and Washington had to have better communication Nuclear Weapons  Massive retaliation and flexible response  Nuclear weapons ultimately a political tool, deterrence a psychological game played in your opponent’s head o It is in your best interest to not start conflict  What makes threats credible? o Capability to act on it (will to do it) o Things have to be fortunate o Make people believe that the consequences are is bad that we shouldn’t go down that road  Later Mutually Assured Destruction becomes the defining term- based on second strike capability o Basis of stability during Cold War o Acknowledging power  Hold each other in check  Purpose was to make war unwinnable and therefore unthinkable o No matter how hard you hit me, I’ll have enough power to destroy you o There is no point on launching that first strike  Competition between US and USSR led to attempts to control growth and spread of weapons (arms control) o Having more nuclear weapons might have accidental consequences  Non-proliferation treaty (NPT) 1968- fundamental bargain between nuclear and non-nuclear states  Non-nuclear states would not get nuclear weapons  Nuclear states would promise to never attack non-nuclear states with nukes, and would help with nuclear power  They would eventually eliminate all of their nuclear weapons so there is peace. Wednesday, October 12, 2016 Vietnam War  Importance of reputation and credibility o Credibility of their defense tactics o What it means for other fields in the Cold War o What it says to the Soviet Union on where and how they are going to act  Changes much of what is to come for next 20 years o The US trying to escape from that types of foreign policies  Illustrates how states get sucked into conflict Logic of escalation  Johnson confronted with alternatives: let south fall, escalate ground war, or air campaign.  What would you go with?  Once a choice is made, you need to follow up- leads to escalation Vietnam  Why was Vietnam seen as important?  Tet offensive 1968 as turning point  Political victory/military loss o Showed that American forces were vulnerable o Weaknesses in South Vietnamese government  Role of the media  Defines a generation in terms of thinking about conflict and foreign policy  Sets up path to new way of dealing with USSR o Different strategy Détente  Kissinger as architect o Secretary of state o National security o Expert in the Concert of Europe o Realist  Balance of power- maintain stability o They both had the power to destroy each other o They were both looking for stability  Based in realism, not about morality or democracy  Why the focus on stability?  Balance of power- play states off each other  What state does the US want to play against the USSR? o ChinaNot good relations with US o Realism played out in a very direct way  Designed to push the USSR to want better relationship with US  “Peaceful co-existence”  Leads to more arms control- limit and reduce numbers  Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT)  Anti-Ballistic Missile treaty o First real agreement between USSR and US o Wasn’t about offense of weapons o Not about limiting nuclear heads o It was about eliminating the defensive capabilities of both sides against nuclear weapons  Mutually assured destruction  To maintain the balance of threat  Major cities would remain hostage and that would result in stability  Helsinki Accords o Declared that human rights and democracy should be guiding principles to governance everywhere o Gesture, not taken seriously o Really important to people in Eastern Europe  Places occupied by the USSR after WWII  Because of opposition movements  Did it work? o It worked in certain ways o It didn’t work in the sense that it transformed into later conflicts in Asia  Better communication but USSR saw it as opportunity to expand influence  Still, détente managed superpower competition  End of détente with Carter o He doesn’t come from a realist perspective but liberal o He wants to focus more on human rights, Nixon didn’t  The USSR senses weakness o It is opportunistic o Afghanistan’s influence  USSR intervenes


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