Week 8 (October 09-14) - Race and Racism
Week 8 (October 09-14) - Race and Racism ANT3451
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ricardo Rauseo on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT3451 at University of Florida taught by Mary Elizabeth Ibarrola in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Race and Racism in Cultural Anthropology at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 10/13/16
Monday, October 10, 2016 Race & Health – Part 3: Eugenics and Medical Racism Sir Francis Galton British Anthropologist Hereditary Genius (1869) & Inquiries into Human Faculty (1883) o Talent is an inherited characteristic o Statistical analysis/Photography o “nature versus nurture” Prioritizing nature Eugenics Record Office 1906 – Station for Experiment Evolution o Charles Davenport – disease is nature’s way Medical advancement is anti-social because they make us weaker o Henry Goddard – Kallikak family research Evil vs. pure children o Harry Laughlin – “excessive” insanity of immigrants o Madison Grant – racialist movement, Nazi inspiration We can all be categorized into races We can eliminate certain races that are not fit Proponents of: segregation, limited immigration, forced sterilization, anti-miscegenation Public Face Ideal Family o “Fitter Family” and “Better baby” competitions o State Fairs o Challenged social revolution o Coupled heredity with the family/home environment Widespread support Eugenics in Law 1896 – Connecticut first to pass marriage law with eugenics provision o People considered unfit by a medical board could not get married th Early 20 Century – 33 states pass laws allowing involuntary sterilization (inmates, patients) 1924 – Johnson Reed Immigration Act & Racial Integrity Act o Colored/White 1927 – Buck vs. Bell o Feeblemindedness, incorrigible behavior, and promiscuity o Upheld sterilization law 1954 – Brown vs. Board o Increased access = increased sterilization From Illness to Racism: Heredity Public health focus on germs o Eugenicists: resistance is hereditary o Diarrhea is hereditary Hypodescent o One drop rule Indian Health Services 1830 – Indian Removal Act displaces 70,000 people 1955 – HIS established to fulfill treaty obligations 1964 – Civil Rights Act mandates non-discrimination in public accommodations 1975 – 25,000 Native American women sterilized Elaine Riddick North Carolina practiced involuntary sterilizations from 1929 to 1974 Riddick was deemed “feeble-minded” and “promiscuous” --- “she does not get along well with others” Riddick was never told NC Eugenics board disbanded in 1977, law repealed in 2003 Health disparities: preventable differences in the burden of disease, injury, violence, or opportunities to achieve optimal health that are experiences by socially disadvantaged populations Wednesday, October 12, 2016 The body and Racial Violence – From Slavery to police Brutality Racist Violence Five primary purposes: o To force people into indenture, slave, peonage or low wage situations o To steal resources o To maintain social control o To restrict competition in employment, business, politics, and social life o To unite white Americans Early policing Informal/communal o “the watch” o Guard system run by volunteers/criminals o Constable supervised o Boston 1636 o Origins of our contemporary police system o They worked under a fee o It looked externally instead of internally (Native American Attacks) Private/for-profit Modern Policing Emerges in 1830s Response to urbanization, growing inequality Publicly funded, full-time employees, fixed rules and procedures, accountable to a central authority Corrupt and brutal Slavery and Policing Control of slaves and other people of color key Justified and sanctioned violence Slave Patrols o Roots in Native American patrols, constables o Carolina 1704 First Formal Slave Patrol o Apprehend escaped slaves, deter slave revolts, discipline slaves outside of the law Violence and Slavery State-sponsored and sanctioned violence Violent from beginning to end Slave codes o Legalized physical abuse o Condoned assault o 1793 – Fugitive Slave Act Law enforcement involved in slavery Texas Rangers Murdered thousands, claimed hundreds of thousands of acres o They were seen as heroes “La Matanza” intersects with period of land-grabbing o Rangers were anglo-enforcers o Reaction to Sediciosos and Mexican Revolution Lynching Extra-legal control o Technically outside of the law o Although sometimes coordinated with police officers Occurred in cooperation with police forces Accusations: o African Americans – sexual crime o Mexicans – robbery About 5,000 killed between 1865 and 1968 o About 75% African American The Ku Klux Klan Founded in 1866 – “Invisible Empire” Reaction to Reconstruction White, Protestant nativists 1871 – Ku Klux Klan Act o Prohibited state actors from violating civil rights o Expanded federal control Lynching Made Legal Legal executions replace lynching White juries and government officials 1930-1996: 4,220 executions, 53% Black 1972 – death penalty outlawed due to discriminatory application Police Brutality and Misconduct Police brutality: instances of serious physical or physiological harm to civilians o Deadly force o Excessive force o Unjustified shooting o Fatal choking o Physical assault Police misconduct: inappropriate or illegal actions taken by police officers in connection with their official duties o Planting evidence o False written reports o Silence o Threatening civilians o Perjury Structural Violence Systematic ways in which social structures harm or otherwise disadvantage individuals o Embedded inequality o Pattern of collective social action o “Structures” are not neutral