Intro to CJ Lecture 5 Notes
Intro to CJ Lecture 5 Notes Crij 2361
Sam Houston State University
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Renata Griggs on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Crij 2361 at Sam Houston State University taught by Dr. Franklin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Introduction to the Criminal Justice System in Criminal Justice at Sam Houston State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/16
Lecture 5: Who are the Police? Police Organization Organized so that they fall under the Executive Branch of the Government Enforce the Law Autonomous Agencies: There isn’t one particular head that oversees all of these agencies Police Agencies are decentralized They are independent of each other Each agency has its own rules, budgets, and procedures They are Militaristic and Hierarchal There is a rank system Chief Major Captain Lieutenant Sergeant Officer Promotions are distributed by a TimeinRank system You must start at the bottom and work your way up Promotion depends on how much time in your rank you have spent The Role of the Police Media v. Real Life Police Work 700,000 officers make 14m arrests 20 arrests per officer 34 Serious arrests These arrests tell us what the police are doing in the area What do police really do? Fight Crime Maintaining order Providing service Police work is dynamic The Patrol Function Foot patrol, vehicle patrol, bikes, horses, etc. Account for 2/3 of the department’s personnel Most visible members Divided into “beats” These are designated patrol areas Types of Patrol Foot, horse, car, scooter, Segway, etc. What are the purposes of patrol? Police presence in itself is coercive Deter crime Maintain public order Quickly respond Identify law breakers Aid the public Create the feeling of security Bulk of Patrol Efforts? Maintain order Does patrol deter crime? Kansas City, Missouri Preventative Patrol Experiment From October 1, 1972 to September 30, 1973 15 districts into 3 groups 1. Reactive Patrol group Eliminated proactive patrol Only responded to calls 2. Proactive Patrol group All police activities were kept and 23 times the officers were used to patrol 3. Control group No change What did the study find? Patrol does not deter crime As a result of this Improving patrol Aggressive patrol This is creating displacement Hotspot policing Where police officers patrol certain areas that “breed” crime Targeting Specific Crimes Broken Windows Policing Broken Windows Theory Rapid response The Investigative Function The purpose of investigation Identify and locate criminal suspects Provide evidence for conviction Rely heavily on interviews Forensic evidence – fingerprints, hair, DNA, etc. Used for murder, burglary, assault, sexual assault, etc. Collection of information – computers, phones, pagers, etc. Detectives Investigative specialist position Promoted to this position Within a given unit – homicide, sexual assault, etc. Sting Operations Group of detectives that deceive criminals Undercover work Internal Affairs A position held within a police department Deal with allegations against police officers SWAT Special Weapons and Tactics HAZMAT Toxic waste DARE Program used in schools Vice Units Units responsible for dealing with crimes of gambling, alcohol, firearms, etc. Evaluating Investigations If a crime is reported while in progress 33% chance that an arrest will be made If a crime is reported 1 minute later 10% After 15 minutes 5% Improving Investigations Patrol officer’s ore responsibility for preliminary investigations When officers arrive at the scene immediately, interview victims, witnesses, etc. Expand the use of specialized units Units geared toward specific crimes Sexual assault, drugs, murder, family violence, etc. These units are comprised of officers investigating the same crime types Technological Advances Aids effectiveness of investigation DNA collection Codis is a collection of DNA from crime scenes Collecting physical evidence Can be assisted by allowing patrol officers more responsibility to arrive at crime scenes and possibly gather evidence but not too much allowance to gather evidence to the point of them hindering the investigation and or messing with evidence Community Policing Introduced in the 80’s Programs designed to bring the police and public closer together in cooperation Response to reactive patrol Many limitations associated with this Frustration with the police Lack of community support Takes a grass roots approach Problem solving at the neighborhood level Patrols on foot, bicycle, et. Growing trust with the community Is it effective? Community policing is an attempt to reduce fear of crime, fear of police, etc. This model increases feelings of safety The community members with this program report less fear of crime Citizens report an increases quality of interaction with police There is very little crime reduction In some ways it is effective and in others it is not Problem – Oriented Policing Similar to community policing Police in the community are working with the community to reduce and or eliminate a specific problem They target a specific longterm crime problem Rely on local residence and private resources to augment this Hot spots Pin points on maps that illustrates where crimes are occurring the most Crime is often concentrated where alcohol is served, pawn shops, public transportation hubs, shopping centers, etc. Effectiveness? Research is promising Who are the police? Education is very important 98% of local departments require some form of education after high school About 18% require some college 9% require a college degree Most ideally would want someone who has some sort of Criminal Justice Degree Promotion decisions Based on TimeInRank Education can be a contributing factor in these decisions Benefits of education Writing Reports, taking statements, Communication skills An educated police force has Fewer citizen complaints and disciplinary problems Better problem – solving skills Abstract thinking Communication skills Individuals who are better able to make decisions Better selfconfidence Minorities in Police Representation Increase minority hiring Balanced force Citizen confidence Heterogeneous police force Women in policing Representation Alice Stebbins Wells (1910) First woman with arrest powers 16% of sworn officers in large cities 11% total women officers Job performance Women are highly successful Gender Conflicts 33% of male officers would accept a female patrol partner Others believe that they cannot handle the physical needs required by the job Similar arrest, conviction, and responses to men Higher success rate when dealing with escalating situations Professional Opposition Women are often excluded from bonding activities African American Women Make up less than 5% of sworn police officers Receive more discrimination Police Subculture Attitudes beliefs, and values commonly held by members of law enforcement Often referred to as the “Blue Curtain” Secretive, insulates police cultures that insulate police from the rest of society Characteristics Solidarity Secrecy Cynicism Very suspicious Wethey: there is us and then there is everyone else The Police Style The working personalities adopted by officers The Crime Fighter The officer who views themselves as responsible for apprehending suspects who have violated the law The Social Agent The officer who is very much geared in their policing persona as a problem solver Takes a look at the community and tries to address the amount of problems Community oriented Law Enforcer The officer who is a bythebook officer The rules say this and that is what I’m going to do The Watchman The officer who sees the job of policing as the maintenance of public order Officers who have been around for a long time Very gowiththeflow and passive Police Discretion and DecisionMaking Discretion Officers have a state sanctioned use of force Their very presence is coercive The use of personal decision making and choice to carry out operation in the criminal justice system Low visibility Decision Making Decision making by police officers Not subject to administrative review
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