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Intro to CJ Lecture 5 Notes

by: Renata Griggs

Intro to CJ Lecture 5 Notes Crij 2361

Renata Griggs
Sam Houston State University

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These notes cover materials that will be on our exam.
Introduction to the Criminal Justice System
Dr. Franklin
Class Notes
police, functions, purpose
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Renata Griggs on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Crij 2361 at Sam Houston State University taught by Dr. Franklin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Introduction to the Criminal Justice System in Criminal Justice at Sam Houston State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/16
Lecture 5: Who are the Police?  Police Organization  Organized so that they fall under the Executive Branch of the Government  Enforce the Law  Autonomous Agencies: There isn’t one particular head that oversees all of these  agencies  Police Agencies are decentralized   They are independent of each other  Each agency has its own rules, budgets, and procedures  They are Militaristic and Hierarchal  There is a rank system  Chief  Major  Captain  Lieutenant  Sergeant  Officer  Promotions are distributed by a Time­in­Rank system  You must start at the bottom and work your way up  Promotion depends on how much time in your rank you have spent  The Role of the Police  Media v. Real Life Police Work  700,000 officers make 14m arrests  20 arrests per officer  3­4 Serious arrests  These arrests tell us what the police are doing in the area  What do police really do?  Fight Crime  Maintaining order  Providing service  Police work is dynamic  The Patrol Function  Foot patrol, vehicle patrol, bikes, horses, etc.  Account for 2/3 of the department’s personnel  Most visible members  Divided into “beats”   These are designated patrol areas  Types of Patrol  Foot, horse, car, scooter, Segway, etc.  What are the purposes of patrol?  Police presence in itself is coercive  Deter crime  Maintain public order  Quickly respond  Identify law breakers  Aid the public  Create the feeling of security  Bulk of Patrol Efforts?  Maintain order  Does patrol deter crime?  Kansas City, Missouri Preventative Patrol Experiment  From October 1, 1972 to September 30, 1973   15 districts into 3 groups  1. Reactive Patrol group  Eliminated proactive patrol  Only responded to calls  2. Proactive Patrol group  All police activities were kept and 2­3 times the officers were  used to patrol  3. Control group  No change  What did the study find?  Patrol does not deter crime  As a result of this  Improving patrol  Aggressive patrol  This is creating displacement  Hot­spot policing  Where police officers patrol certain areas that “breed” crime  Targeting Specific Crimes  Broken Windows Policing  Broken Windows Theory  Rapid response  The Investigative Function  The purpose of investigation  Identify and locate criminal suspects  Provide evidence for conviction  Rely heavily on interviews  Forensic evidence – fingerprints, hair, DNA, etc.  Used for murder, burglary, assault, sexual assault, etc.  Collection of information – computers, phones, pagers, etc.  Detectives  Investigative specialist position  Promoted to this position  Within a given unit – homicide, sexual assault, etc.  Sting Operations  Group of detectives that deceive criminals  Undercover work  Internal Affairs  A position held within a police department  Deal with allegations against police officers  SWAT  Special Weapons and Tactics  HAZMAT  Toxic waste   DARE  Program used in schools  Vice Units  Units responsible for dealing with crimes of gambling, alcohol,  firearms, etc.  Evaluating Investigations  If a crime is reported while in progress  33% chance that an arrest will be made  If a crime is reported 1 minute later  10%  After 15 minutes  5%  Improving Investigations  Patrol officer’s ore responsibility for preliminary investigations  When officers arrive at the scene immediately, interview victims,  witnesses, etc.  Expand the use of specialized units  Units geared toward specific crimes  Sexual assault, drugs, murder, family violence, etc.  These units are comprised of officers investigating the same crime  types  Technological Advances  Aids effectiveness of investigation   DNA collection  Codis is a collection of DNA from crime scenes  Collecting physical evidence  Can be assisted by allowing patrol officers more responsibility to  arrive at crime scenes and possibly gather evidence but not too much  allowance to gather evidence to the point of them hindering the  investigation and or messing with evidence  Community Policing   Introduced in the 80’s  Programs designed to bring the police and public closer together in cooperation  Response to reactive patrol  Many limitations associated with this  Frustration with the police  Lack of community support  Takes a grass roots approach  Problem solving at the neighborhood level  Patrols on foot, bicycle, et.  Growing trust with the community  Is it effective?  Community policing is an attempt to reduce fear of crime, fear of police,  etc.  This model increases feelings of safety  The community members with this program report less fear of crime  Citizens report an increases quality of interaction with police  There is very little crime reduction  In some ways it is effective and in others it is not  Problem – Oriented Policing  Similar to community policing  Police in the community are working with the community to reduce and or  eliminate a specific problem  They target a specific long­term crime problem  Rely on local residence and private resources to augment this  Hot spots  Pin points on maps that illustrates where crimes are occurring the most  Crime is often concentrated where alcohol is served, pawn shops, public  transportation hubs, shopping centers, etc.  Effectiveness?  Research is promising  Who are the police?  Education is very important  98% of local departments require some form of education after high school  About 18% require some college  9% require a college degree  Most ideally would want someone who has some sort of Criminal Justice  Degree  Promotion decisions  Based on Time­In­Rank  Education can be a contributing factor in these decisions  Benefits of education  Writing  Reports, taking statements,   Communication skills  An educated police force has  Fewer citizen complaints and disciplinary problems  Better problem – solving skills  Abstract thinking  Communication skills  Individuals who are better able to make decisions  Better self­confidence  Minorities in Police  Representation  Increase minority hiring  Balanced force  Citizen confidence  Heterogeneous police force  Women in policing  Representation  Alice Stebbins Wells (1910)  First woman with arrest powers  16% of sworn officers in large cities  11% total women officers  Job performance  Women are highly successful  Gender Conflicts  33% of male officers would accept a female patrol partner  Others believe that they cannot handle the physical needs required by  the job   Similar arrest, conviction, and responses to men  Higher success rate when dealing with escalating situations  Professional Opposition  Women are often excluded from bonding activities  African American Women  Make up less than 5% of sworn police officers  Receive more discrimination  Police Subculture  Attitudes beliefs, and values commonly held by members of law enforcement  Often referred to as the “Blue Curtain”  Secretive, insulates police cultures that insulate police from the rest of  society  Characteristics  Solidarity  Secrecy  Cynicism  Very suspicious  We­they: there is us and then there is everyone else  The Police Style  The working personalities adopted by officers  The Crime Fighter  The officer who views themselves as responsible for apprehending  suspects who have violated the law  The Social Agent  The officer who is very much geared in their policing persona as a  problem solver  Takes a look at the community and tries to address the amount of  problems   Community oriented  Law Enforcer  The officer who is a by­the­book officer  The rules say this and that is what I’m going to do  The Watchman  The officer who sees the job of policing as the maintenance of public  order  Officers who have been around for a long time  Very go­with­the­flow and passive  Police Discretion and Decision­Making  Discretion  Officers have a state sanctioned use of force  Their very presence is coercive  The use of personal decision making and choice to carry out operation in the criminal justice system  Low visibility Decision Making  Decision making by police officers   Not subject to administrative review 


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