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by: Bri M

Neuroscience 2010

Bri M

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About this Document

Class notes 10/14
Introduction to Psychology
Fred Switzer
Class Notes
neuroscience, motivation
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bri M on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2010 at Clemson University taught by Fred Switzer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 10/13/16
Neuroscience Motivation ❖ Motivation → allocation of your time and effort ❖ Note that motivation is ​future​ oriented ➢ Predicting the future ➢ Ex: if you spend your time on Facebook instead of writing your english are predicting that Facebook is more fun AND that you spending time on Facebook won’t harm your English paper grade ❖ Don’t confuse motivation and performance ➢ Performance = motivation x ability x sources ➢ Ex: you can’t dunk a basketball if you don’t have a basket or a basketball(resources) ❖ Instinct theory ➢ People don’t actually run on instincts ❖ Drive theory (aka homeostasis theory) ➢ This theory is WRONG but is basis for CORRECT modern theory ➢ Simple version: ■ Begins with a need (some kind of physiological deficiency ex: food,water) ■ That need creates a psychological feeling (known as a DRIVE) ■ This drive then initiates drive reducing behaviors (makes you want to go out and get food if you are hungry) ■ This theory can be seen in many animal behaviors ➢ Hypothalamus often works like this ➢ There is a FEEDBACK LOOP (in more complex theory) ■ Sensory system ■ There is a set point associated with that sensory system ● Ex: don’t drink too much water ■ If your sensor is below that setpoint it triggers your drive and then shuts off your effector ❖ Need theories (ALL OLD AND WRONG) ➢ Maslow ■ Best known need theory ■ “Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs” ■ Has two parts: ● We have a bunch of needs (5 categories of needs) ◆ Physiological needs - hunger/thirst ◆ Safety needs (we need to feel safe) ◆ Belongingness and love needs ◆ Esteem needs (need for respect/indepence) ◆ Self-actualization needs (need to live up to one’s fullest and unique potential) ● You have to satisfy a lower level need before the next higher up need can show up ● Ex: once you are fed THEN you can worry about feeling safe ■ WHY IS HE WRONG? ■ Our needs don’t fall into these nice five categories ● Ex: aesthetic needs ■ The rule that you move up in the pyramid doesn’t work ➢ Argyris - Existence, Relatedness, Growth ➢ McClelland - need for achievement ➢ Herzberg - motivators and dissatisfiers ❖ Behaviorism (operant conditioning; reinforcement) ➢ Positive reinforcement ➢ Negative reinforcement ➢ Positive punishment ➢ Negative punishment ➢ Continuous vs. partial reinforcement ■ Fixed ratios ➢ Reinforcement schedules ➢ Great theory but there is always a catch: ■ People do, in fact, think ● System 2 can override rewards and punishments ● Ex: if humans get a reward and think you are trying to control us with that reward...we will do the action less instead of more ■ “On the folly of rewarding A while hoping for B” ● Drawback of how behaviorism works in the real world ● You hope you are going to get rewarded for A but get rewarded for B ■ Regression to the mean ➢ The “hot stove” rule: ■ Immediate, consistent, impersonal


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