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GEOG 101 Week 8 Notes

by: Hallie Notetaker

GEOG 101 Week 8 Notes GEOG 101 002

Hallie Notetaker
Minnesota State University, Mankato
GPA 3.66

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About this Document

Hydrology Basics and Groundwater
Physical Geography
Phillip Larson
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hallie Notetaker on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 101 002 at Minnesota State University - Mankato taught by Phillip Larson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Physical Geography in Geography at Minnesota State University - Mankato.

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Date Created: 10/13/16
Hydrology Basics and Groundwater What is Water and Why is it Important?  Two parts Hydrogen, one part Oxygen o Hydrogen is covalently bonded (shares electrons) with Oxygen o Due to the strength of hydrogen bonds it has a unique “surface tension”  Allows it to form droplets and allows small insects to walk across the surface of it  Water bonds to other water because it is cohesive (hydrogen bonding) o The covalent bonds between Oxygen and Hydrogen are much stronger than the hydrogen bonds between separate water molecules o The weakness of hydrogen bonds allows an individual molecule of water to form, break and reform with other water molecules  The hydrogen boding occurs because the covalently bonded structure of water sets up a polar distribution of charges o This polar distribution of charges allows water to be a universal solvent  Wherever water goes (soils, rocks, etc.) it dissolves material because the polar charges are attracted to other molecules (think weathering)  This is called adhesion  Example – limestone  Human bodies are 70% water o We need 1.4 liters per day o All the food we eat needs it too  It covers 71% of the planets surface o Only a small fraction (2.5%) is fresh and drinkable o We may be running into a shortage very soon  Exists in three physical states o Ice (solid), water (liquid), vapor (gas)  Vast currents of liquid water, water vapor and ice help transfer and store energy within our planet o These are all connected through the Hydrologic System o Flowing water can move though ground water or surface water The Hydrologic Cycle  Components: o Precipitation o Infiltration o Evaporation – transpiration o Surface water flow o Ground water flow o Storage Water Storage  Storage of water: o Oceans o Atmosphere – clouds, rain, ice – transported by winds o Glaciers and ice sheets – the cryosphere o Surface lakes and streams o Groundwater – water that moves in pore spaces beneath the surface/or in underground reservoirs o Biosphere o Lithosphere – in the crystallographic structure of hydrous minerals Water in/on Earth  There are different types of water stored in/on our planet o Hygroscopic water – found as a microscopic film of water surrounding soil particles  Tightly bound to a soil particle by molecular attraction so powerful that it cannot be removed by natural forces  Hygroscopic water is bound to soil particles by adhesive forces o Capillary water – held by cohesive forces between the films of hygroscopic water  The binding pressure for capillary water is much less than hygroscopic water  This water can be removed by air drying or by plant absorption, but cannot be removed by gravity  Plants extract this water through their roots until the soil capillary force (force holding water to the particle) is equal to the extractive force of the plant root  At this point the plant cannot pull water from the planting rooting zone and it wilts (called the wilting point) o Gravity water – moves with gravity to the water table  The amount of water held in the soil after excess water has drained is called the field capacity of the soil  The amount of water in the soil is controlled by the soil texture  Soils dominated by clay sized particles have more total pore space in a unit volume than soils dominated by sand  As a result, fine grained soils have higher field capacities than coarse grained soils Infiltration  Porosity – groundwater is stored in the pore spaces between grains in sedimentary materials, or in joints and fracture sin rocks such as igneous and metamorphic rocks  Permeability – the interconnectedness of pores, which in turn determines how quickly water can move through a substance o Low permeability materials pond water o More permeability = more fluids flow through Applying Basic Knowledge  Getting water from the ground: o Aquifers – a permeable formation from which water can be extracted  E.g. Gravel, sand, sandstone, limestone o Aquicludes – an impermeable formation that inhibits the flow of groundwater  E.g. Shale, clay mud  Perched water table  Artesian well – flow under it’s own pressure (e.g.Aquifers confined by acquicludes)  Case study of aquifers in the US o Arizona and the Southwest  Case study from the central plains o OgallalaAquifer (high plains aquifer)  Critical to what we eat Porosity and Groundwater Subsidence  Recharge – the processes that replenish groundwater o E.g. Precipitation infiltrating below ground  Drawdown – the process of depleting round water o i.e. What comes out is more than what goes in  Dynamic equilibrium – the elevation of the water table is in balance – equilibrium – between drawdown and recharge  What happens why you pull too much out? o Removal of water causes compaction and ground subsidence Groundwater Returns to the Surface  As baseflow to the stream  As baseflow to marshes and lakes  As a spring or waterfall from a perched water table/artesian spring Getting Water to the Stream  Influent – stream feeds water table  Effluent – water table above level of stream; groundwater feeds stream (baseflow) Drainage Basins  Definition – the area drained by a stream and all of its tributaries  Examples – colorado river basin, Mississippi River  General zones o Sediment/erosion – typically in the headwaters and at drainage divides o Transportation – typically in the middle of the basin o Deposition – at the lower end of the basin, in the delta (body of sediment deposited as a stream enters standing water)  How are drainage basins described? o Size shape, arrangement of tributaries (pattern) and drainage density o Drainage pattern  Dendritic  Trellis  Radial  Rectangular o Primarily a function of:  Structure  Lithology  Overburden  Climate  Developmental history  Slope  Some drainages are tributary systems o Drainages come together, while others are distributary (drainages split apart) Drainage Density  Total stream length/unit area o Controlled by: permeability, erodibility of surface materials, vegetation, slope angles and time  Badlands – very high drainage density  Ingredients: o Intense rain o High drainage density and low permeability  Results in rapid runoff o Drainage basin pattern that combines water o Water in a narrow channel/canyon where is can rise


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