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Chapter 1: Introduction to Psychology

by: Dejhara Mckinney

Chapter 1: Introduction to Psychology PSY 1012-001

Marketplace > Florida Atlantic University > Psychology (PSYC) > PSY 1012-001 > Chapter 1 Introduction to Psychology
Dejhara Mckinney

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week 1
General Psychology
James J. Jakubow
Class Notes
psych, intro
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dejhara Mckinney on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1012-001 at Florida Atlantic University taught by James J. Jakubow in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Florida Atlantic University.


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Date Created: 10/13/16
Chapter 1: Introduction to Psychology Friday, September 2, 10:31 AM  Prescientific Psychology ○ Trepanning: a surgical technique in which a hole is cut into the skull of a patient. It is believed that doing so allows for evil spirits to exit the mind of the patient  Also treats headaches  Treated head traumas and lost consciousness which would alleviate pressure in the head  Ancient Philosophers ○ Contributed to the development of psychology, including ancient Greeks ○ One of the worst times for religious philosophy occurred during the end of medieval times in Europe, which had been filled with superstitious thinking ○ During the 15th century, it was a concern that witches and evil spirits were able to control human behavior ○ Malleus Maleficarum: Latin for "witches hammer"  Written by Henrich + James  Used to research characteristics of witches and evil spirits □ Description: 1. Conditions 2. Treatments 3. Judicial proceedings ○ Paracelsus: 1492-1591  Medical doctor and alchemist ○ Alchemy: superstition and chemistry combined ○ Alchemist were often familiar with medical applications of plants and minerals ○ Paracelsus came up with a treatment for syphilis, which consisted of taking a bath in mercury  17th century and development of scientific method ○ Scientific method had been more applied towards astronomy and physics ○ Early scientific research revolved around the measurement of motion, light, heat, etc. ○ Anatomical research provided clues to the workings of human biology ○ Rene Descartes: published his theory in the "Treatise of Man"  He proposed that the nervous system has similar to a hydraulic plumbing system  According to Descartes, the mind causes the ventricles of the brain to squeeze and push fluid through the nerves so they can operate the muscles ○ Two primary flaws Descartes's theory: 1. He had perceived the mind as a nonphysical entity 2. This flaw involved his proposal that nerves ere hollow tubes ○ Antoine Van Leeuwenhoek, microscopy scientist, could not verify that nerves were hollow tubes filled with fluid ○ Newton had proposed that nerves transmitted vibrations from the muscle to the brain (sensation) or from the brain to the muscle (voluntary control of movement) ○ Newton's approach had rejected Descartes's mind/body distinction because both senses (sensation and voluntary control) operated through the same physical mechanisms  18th century and biological electricity ○ This century was the early development of batteries ○ Leyden jars: used to electrocute paralyzed patient  This technique came from the idea that nerves that did not work, were clogged and had no capability of transporting signals.  Forerunner of this technique included Christian Gottlied Kratzenstein, stated that patients had reported a "tingling" sensation, which allowed for another route of information to access the patient's brain ○ Animal electricity: nerves conducting electricity through animals ○ One of the few beneficial uses of Aldini's electric which treatments was treating mild depression, also known as "melancholy"  19th century and research leading to development ○ Ernest Muller developed the "Doctrine of Specific Nerve Energies"  This doctrine came about with the belief that the brain was made from a unitary substance. Today, this substance would be known as "neural tissue" ○ Muller proposed that each area of the brain functioned to produce different functions or specific nerve energies ○ Ablation: when 7an area of the brain is chosen, destroyed + afterwards a behavioral deficit is determined once recovered from surgery  This was developed by Pierre Flourens, in 1825 which he used on rabbits ○ In contrast to Pierre's technique, German biologist, Eduard Hitzig and Gustav Fritsch, stimulated the entire outer surface of the brain with a mild current. Psychology Page 1 brain with a mild current.  This technique allowed the determination of brain function exciting rather than eliminating brain activity.  Dogs were mainly test subjects  Sensation and Perception ○ Ernst Weber and Gustav Fechner conduced the first experiments on what we know today as Sensation and Perception ○ Psychophysics: The field of psychology that examines how physical energy outside of the body is received and converted into mental perception ○ Somatosensory: Sense of touch ○ Linear input-output: When the change between input and output are equal  Helmholtz ○ Helmholtz developed the first ophthalmoscope, which is the device the doctor uses to look at the back of your eye during an eye exam. ○ Helmholtz conducted experiments which gave support to Thomas's Young color vision theory ○ Helmholtz accurate estimation of the speed of neural signals was one of his most relevant discoveries for psychology. ○ He assessed this by marking two points on an individual's body and clocking their reaction times from each area. ○ If stimulation occurred on your shoulder and on your foot, he would have been able to estimate the speed of your reaction to each stimulus and determine the difference between your reaction to the stimulus closer to your brain versus the one further away ○ The difference between those two points would allow for an estimate of the speed of neural transmission, which we call the subtraction method ○ Subtraction method: A process in which simple response durations are subtracted from durations to determine the duration of the decision  Donders ○ Fraciscus Donders, co-founder of the field of ophthalmology ○ Donders used a variation of Helmholtz's subtraction method to determine the duration of a simple decision ○ Donders proposed that reaction times to stimuli require only the observation of the stimulus and a reaction to it. ○ If one were to add an extra stimulus to the experiment, one which required a decision to respond or not, then the difference between: a) Simply responding to a stimulus b) Responding to two stimuli if only the correct one were present, would allow for the measurement of the decision itself ○ Subtraction process has become a primary measurement tool in psychology  The 20th century and the formation of modern psychology ○ As the physical sciences developed computer systems and electronic equipment, psychologists made use of these advances in their own research ○ Developments in biology, such as the mapping of the human cortex during brain surgeries and their discovery of DNA, resulted in further developments in therapies for mental illnesses and brain injuries. ○ Social events have influenced the development of psychology as well ○ The development of national ethical standards for research and a civil rights movement influenced the first 75 years of research of the 20th century  Defining Psychology  Psychology as the study of thoughts and feelings ○ The history of psychology reflects psychologist concern over the internal mental events of people. ○ Scientific investigations of thoughts and feelings have always been designed to measure behavior specifically ○ Directly measured: A datum is that publicly observable.  The overt behavior is not used to infer the existence of an unseen mental event Psychology Page 2


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