Class notes from PHIL 101
Class notes from PHIL 101 PHIL 101-005
Popular in Intro to Philosophy
Daisha Noland Wheeler
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Kyle A. Headen
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Philosophy (introduction to bioethics)
This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Daisha Noland Wheeler on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 101-005 at Bowie State University taught by Dr. Sean Turchin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Intro to Philosophy in Philosophy (introduction to bioethics) at Bowie State University.
Reviews for Class notes from PHIL 101
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/13/16
Daisha Noland Wheeler August 31, 2016 Professor Turchin Philosophy 101: An Introduction ● “If you would be a real seeker after truth, it is necessary that at least once in your life you doubt, as far as possible, all things.” -Rene Descartes What is philosophy and why is it important? ● The word “philosophy” comes from two Greek words, philo (meaning “love”) and sophia (meaning “wisdom”) ● Danish thinker Soren Kierkegaard once said, “Life must be understood backward. But it must be lived forward!” Philosophy as a Worldview ● We all have beliefs about ourselves, others, the world we live in. Doing Philosophy:Examining our worldview ● To question and critically examine our life:our beliefs and presuppositions (a presupposition: example, If i asked, “Have you spoken with George?” I assume that George is a real person first in order to ask whether you have spoken to him). ● To critically examine the beliefs of others. ● In it is inherent in how you view the world. September 2, 2016 Metaphysics ● Definition: Meta: meaning “after or beyond” ● Physics: meaning “the physical.” ● Sum meaning: study of that which is beyond the physical It’s Primary Concerns: 1. Knowledge of the first principles of being and the world: (Ontology: the study of being… what does it mean to be, to exist) 2. Our knowledge of God, freedom, Immortality of the Soul, etc. Metaphysics and Epistemology: ● Historically, always has been a close relationship. ● Traditionally, metaphysics has sought to examine concepts such as God, immortality, etc. ● Immanuel Kant: Knowledge is limited to the world of phenomenon, empirical reality. Epistemology ● Definition: the study of knowledge and justified belief. ● Questions and Concerns of Epistemology: ● What are the necessary and sufficient conditions of knowledge? ● What are its sources? What is its structure, and what are its limits? Rationalism and Empiricism Rationalism: ● Definition: the belief that all knowledge is mainly derived from our rational processes, our reason. ● It looks skeptically upon knowledge being merely derived from what we observe, in that there are many things that complicate knowledge claims based upon what we perceive. Empiricism: Definition: is the emphasis on observational evidence via sensory experience over the other evidence as the source of knowledge. Ethics ● Ethical Emotivism: this is the view that all moral judgements are simply a matter of language used to cause various emotional responses. September 7, 2016 Metaphysics and Epistemology: Forms and ideas ● Socrates (470-399 BCE): ● Plato (427-347 BCE) The Forms/Ideas ● “What is truly real is not the objects we encounter in sensory experience but, rather, “forms” and these can only be grasped intellectually. ● Form is an abstract property or quality. Take any property of an object; separate it from that object and consider it by itself, and you are contemplating a form. ● The ideal or universal property of any given object in the world. ● This is the ideal thing of which every object in the world of sense, reflects to a greater or lesser extent. It is the purest idea or model, the archetype to which other objects in its class mirror or represent. ● In Sum: For each class of objects and qualities there is an absolute form or essence which is the true nature and reality shared by particular members of the class. ● Concept of beauty: According to Plato, all these objects share the form of beauty September 12, 2016 Knowledge do we acquire true knowledge? ● Plato’s Metaphysics “Immorality of the Soul” ● Knowledge about ultimate reality, true reality, comes from within the soul through a form of “recollection” rather than something we are taught. ● Thus, each individual has in his or her immortal soul a perfect set of forms that can be remembered, and only this constitutes knowledge. Knowledge and Truth ● Plato and true living or existing: to know the truth is not good enough; one must live the truth, thus to “know” is “to be.” Aristotle ● Aristotle (382-322 B.C.E): was born in Stagira; was the most distinguished of Plato’s students; went on to tutor Alexander the Great. What is it to “be” to “exist” ● To be, is to be a particular thing. ● Each thing is a combination of both matter and form. ● Without matter and form, nothing would exist. Example of A thing as both form and matter ● A statue: its matter is a rock or marble; its form is the shaping of the matter (rock or marble) to represent a man or woman, etc. ● Thus, you need to have both “ form” and “matter” to have a thing or object. Actuality and Possibility ● He thinks matter is infinite, matter has always existed but exist in the state of possibility. September 16, 2016 ● Matter is unlimited, infinite. ● Matter is Potentiality: As potentiality, matter has the capacity to be something. Once matter takes on form, it becomes limited and thus actuality becomes something; thus matter moved from potentiality to actuality. From Potentiality to Actuality : An Example ● A block of marble is a potential statue” means “from a block of marble, by suitable acts, a statue is produced. Problem of Movement from potentiality to actuality? ● An Infinite Unending movement from possibility (potentiality) to actuality? The Solution ● Aristotle proposes that there must be a first unmoved first mover, which is eternal substance and actuality, this is “God.” (pool balls on a pool table) Universals ● He says, “ By the terms, ‘universal’ I mean that which is of such a nature as to be predicted of many subjects, by ‘individual’ that which is not thus predicated. ● Aristotle: Universals do not exist apart from the particulars. The coins may both be circular, thus sharing that form of circularity, but both possesses the form of circularity in themselves. In sum, forms, or universals, exist only in things. Metaphysics and Epistemology: The Rationalists and The Empiricists (Descartes, Leibniz, Locke, Berkeley and Hume) Debate between the Rationalism and Empiricism ● Rationalism: ● Definition: the belief that all knowledge is mainly derived from our rational processes, our reason. ● It looks skeptically upon knowledge being merely derived from what we observe, in that there are many things that complicate knowledge claims based upon what we perceive. ● Descartes, Spinoza (1632-1677), and Leibniz (1646-1716) ● Empiricism: ● Definition: is the emphasis on observational evidence via sensory experience over other evidence as the source of knowledge. ● The British Empiricists: Locke (1632-1704), Berkeley (1685-1753) , and David Hume (1711-1776) September 19, 2016 Historical Background: ● The Renaissance (14th to the 16th Centuries): Began an intellectual (scientific) and artistic movement that helped emancipate Europe from the authority of the Church. ● The Scientific Revolution Copernicus (1473-1543): he offered that the sun was at the center of the universe to which all planets revolve (move from geocentric to heliocentric conception of the universe) ● Epistemological Dualism: the world of physical objects and the mind that understands or comprehends them: tension: mind vs. matter (Plato and the “two realms view”) ● Current Day Problem: Mind/Body Problem ● Metaphysical/Epistemological Positions to this Problem: ● Dualism: what exists is either physical or mental (spiritual); human beings have both a physical component (physical body) and a mental component (a mind). ● Materialism (physicalism): only material or physical things exists, or all things that exist, including human beings, are merely physical. ● Idealism: All physical things are merely projections of the mind, thus are merely mental in nature. Rene Descartes: (1596-1650) ● Known as the “Father of Modern Philosophy” ● He was a French philosopher and mathematician ● He is best known for the statement, “Cogito, ergo sum” - “I am thinking, therefore I am.” ● Most famous work: the Meditations. Takes Two Approaches to these questions: These irrationalist believe knowledge is gain through reason ● The Senses: He thinks the senses is subjective and extremely doubtful due to how often our senses deceive us. ● Rationality (Mathematics): knowledge via mathematical propositions or truths are far more certain and thus objective and trustworthy. September 21, 2016 ● Concerning Our Knowledge of Reality, he wonders if what we think is reality is merely a dream. ● Descartes wonders how he knows if he even exists. Descartes: Dream and Reality ● Dreams, Reality, and our senses? ● How are our dreams different from reality? Descartes’ Rationalism: “Simple thoughts” ● Both dreams and reality share: “simple thoughts:” matter, shape, size, space and times, since in both dreams and reality all objects are conformed to such constructs. ● Thus: “simple thoughts” : one thing is for certain, namely, simple or universal thoughts...these innate ideas that transcend sensory experience. ● These simple thoughts are provided by our minds, not sense… thus rationalism is more with regard to knowledge of the world. Descartes and knowledge of the self? ● He wonders how he knows that he really exists? How can he prove it? ● What if he is being tricked by a demon or spirit of God into believing he exists? September 26, 2016 Being Tricked by A Demon ● He notices that to be deceived by the demon there must be a medium of deception, namely thought, and if thought, then a real thinker, himself. ● ● But, the self that doubts its own existence must exist to be able to doubt in the first place. Truth: mind or senses? ● Truths of the mind are distinct from those of the senses ● Our senses are unable to apprehend external objects ● Thus, it is the “rational soul” or mind whereby we come to know the external world ● But, how do we know that our mind are reliable? Descartes, God, and knowledge ● If God exists, then we can have knowledge, although not based upon the senses that the external world exists. ● God has stocked the human mind with a number of ‘simple’ thoughts that, given His goodness, cannot possibly be false. ● But how do we know that God exists? October 3, 2016 Decartes and the Concept of God ● In this life we experience imperfection finitude, limitation, and pain. ● And yet, we can think of a being which transcends the imperfections and limitations in the world. ● So, we have an idea about such a being. ● If we have an idea of something, than something must have caused it. ● Can we have ideas about things that do not exist? ● If we have an idea such a being like God, then God must have caused it. ● But he can only cause us to have this idea if he does in fact exist. ● We do have the idea of God, thus he must exist. Mind and Body Dualism 2. Example against Innate Ideas: Children and idiots are not aware of these innate ideas nor do they agree upon them; they acquire knowledge through the learning process. 3. But if these ideas are not innate, where do they come from? 4. The mind is: Tabula rasa (blank slate) 2. Ideas from experience ● All of our ideas come from experience, either from sensation or by reflection. ● Perception is the first step and degree towards knowledge. ● Experience comprises two sources of ideas: sensation and reflection (perception of the operation of our own minds). ● We receive most of our ideas with our senses; we receive the others through reflection on what we have experienced. ● To react by sensation alone is the misstep ● Sensation provides us with the ideas of qualities, such as ideas of colors, heat and so on. ● Reflection provides us with ideas such as those of thinking, willing, doubting, etc. 3. Simple and Complex Ideas All of our ideas are either simple or complex ● Simple Ideas: is one that is uncompounded,that contains nothing but one uniform appearance, and that cannot be distinguished into different ideas (example: colors, sounds, tastes, smells, and touches) ● Complex Idea: one that is composed of two or more simple ideas (example: the color yellow and fragrant ideas) October 12, 2016 4. Primary and Secondary Qualities
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'