Popular in World History 2
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Notetaker on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1112 at Georgia Southern University taught by Feltman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see World History 2 in History at Georgia Southern University.
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Date Created: 10/13/16
Lecture 1: The Biology of a Global Society The Crusades - Began in 1096, to take Jerusalem back from the Muslims - Jerusalem is the holy land for Christians, Jews, and Muslims - The Pope sent out a call for Christians to go out and take back Jerusalem The Third Crusade: Saladin and the Fall of Jerusalem:1187 - The Christians of Europe tried to get the city back in any way possible - Throughout their journey they traded money, language, spices, cultures, fabrics, and biology (sex). Mongol Empire - Silk road ran through the Mongol Empire - Khubilai Khan – was in charge of the Mongol Empire “Great Khan” – 1260 Marco Polo (1254-1324) - Europeans went in search of resources, they now had access to - Marco Polo provided people with a “travel guide” since we documented his travels The Black Death - When people traveled around they carried diseases and spread them wherever they went - 40 million deaths by 1400 - started in Mongolia - Europeans brought it back to Sicily and rats or gerbils carried it off the ship and spread it throughout Europe 1347. Plague Symptoms/ believed causes - Swollen lymph nodes “bubos” - Lack of blood flow - Extremities turned black - People believed the plague was a result of ‘bad air” - No one was immune to the disease - They believed it was the end of the world (revelations) Plague in Italy - People were dying by the thousands, there wasn’t enough priests for the Last Rights - Plague doctors tried to help cure people for a very high fee Social Implications of the Plague - People were really terrified - The plague broke families apart - Most people abandoned their family members to save themselves Jews as Scapegoats - Anti-Semitism – the hatred of Jewish people - Jews were the first monotheistic religion - People didn’t like the Jews because they thought that the Jews were responsible for the death of Christ - People blamed the plague on Jews by saying they poisoned the wells with the disease - Entire Jewish communities were rounded up and exterminated The Religious Response - Flagellants – constructed whips with metal hooks and whipped themselves, asking for forgiveness - Some people took a different approach and just “turned up” because they knew they were going to die anyway Plague = Equalizer - More employment opportunities, higher wages Availability of Goods/Housing - Surplus of resources - People can actually afford things - Lot’s of empty houses - People inhabited other’s houses Environmental Consequences - No one could go out to farm, the previously deforested areas - The plants grew in an abundance, now that there was no human interaction Zheng He and Maritime Exploration (1405-1433) - Became the greatest Chinese explorer in the 1500’s - Explored the coast of Africa, under the Ming dynasty - Stops exploration, so that china could stay isolated without cultural disturbances The Growth of the Ottoman Empire - Leader: Mehmed the conqueror - Seen as a religiously tolerant empire - Islamic empire, had tension with the Christians The Fall of Constantinople: 1453 - Muslims required this land - Europeans now have to find another route to use for trade and travel The Rediscovery of Forgotten Knowledge - As Islam spread throughout other territories, scholars flee to seek refuge in Italy - They take their ideas of philosophy, science, etc. with them - Italian trading cities were very wealthy; scholars went there to find work as educators for the rich - Fled from the Hellenistic world, now known as Greece The Driving force of Exploration: Profit - Gold, spices, slavery - Europeans went exploring in hopes of gaining riches and making money 1441: Antao Goncalves at cape Blanco - 12 Africans enslaved by Europeans, then taken to Portugal Retaking Spain: The Fall of Granada: 1492 - Pushed the Muslims out of Spain - Columbus writes about the boats of Jews getting pushed out of Spain as well Christopher Columbus - Hard worker who wanted to make a name for his family - Wanted to go west, to establish a new trade route - Brought criminals, unemployed, and poor farmers with him on his trip ( people who had nothing to loose if they left) - Landed in San Salvador first - Tainos People were the indigenous people of the land - Columbus begins to trade with the Tainos people, but thinks he could easily exploit them, because they were so innocent - Columbus leaves behind a group of his men (criminals), who wreck havoc on the island and abuse the native women - He starts to see himself as a great missionary Bartolome De Las Casas - Europeans exploited the native people from the beginning - He reported all the things that were happening in these new lands The Treaty of Tordesillas: 1494 - Was an attempt to divide the new territory between Portugal and Spain - Europeans tried to divide up territories that were not even there’s The Colombian Exchange - Brought a lot of new resources from Europe to the “New World” - Also brought diseases that would spread throughout the new world ad kill off the indigenous people The Aztec Empire: 25 million inhabitants - Was a multi-ethnic empire - Major city was Tenochtitlan Montezuma - Leader of the Aztec people - Human sacrifices were being done, to end a drought Hernan Cortes - Was a law student who set out to make money in the new world - Went to search for local knowledge - Was given Dona Marina, one of the Aztec leader’s daughters - Cortes eventually took over Montezuma and the people of the indigenous land began to riot - Europeans tried to flee the land because the Aztec’s rose up and started fighting back Cortes and the “New Spain” - Comes back to the land with an army and conquers the city Encomienda and Encomendero - Europeans set out to systematically exploit resources - They were given permission to enslave the native people The Inca Empire and Atahualpa - Located in South America - Leader had just defeated his brother to become the ruler of the land - Spaniards who invade the empire were in search of gold - Advanced Inca people, started the first Brain surgery Francisco Pizarro, Conquistador of the Inca: 1532 - Learned that he needed to establish himself as the leader, in the beginning - Captured the Inca leader, and killed him, after he converted to Christianity so he wouldn’t be burned alive - They strangled him to death - The native people were then exploited Death of Pizarro: 1541 - Pizarro was killed because the encomenderro wanted all the riches to themselves and not send money back to Spain - The king of Spain stopped the inheritance of lands by encomenderros Mestizos - Mix of Spanish and indigenous people of the new world - Racial hierarchy begins to form European blood was considered better than the native people - Place of birth matters as well, if your origin was European you were considered better 1820: More than 10 million Africans had been brought to the new world - Africans were kidnapped and forced to get on board and forced into slavery Protestant Reformation Cathedrals/ Churches - People would travel to these buildings - Glass stained windows with pictures helped illiterate people gain the messages of the bible - Brought money to the cities The Church as a Social Cornerstone - Had markets, food, clothes, etc Indulgences - When churches needed money they would sell indulgences “Forgiveness” - It was basically a ticket to hell, because people shouldn’t be able to buy their forgiveness. Jan Hus: 1369 – 1415 - Chec priest: spoke out against the catholic church, by questioning their motives - He was set on fire and killed Johan Tetzel & Indulgences - Defended the sale of indulgences/salvation - “its not just about your salvation, but your dead relative’s salvations as well.” Martin Luther (1483-1546) (Wittenberg, Germany) - German monk, believed the catholic church could reform - Believed you could not purchase salvation - He never set out to destroy the faith, he just wanted reform - Writes 95 thesis about what he thinks is wrong with the church - * “there is one thing that can ensure salvation…and that is faith” “only God can offer you salvation” - Believed Theory: he marches up to the church and nails his thesis to the door - His word spreads throughout eastern Europe and down into Rome Charles V: Holy Roman Emperor - Collection of more than 300 different states - Leader Charles the 5 , ruled through Divine Right (believed he was King because God wanted him to be) Luther Before the Imperial Diet in Worms, 1521 - Political and religious gathering - Luther was Charged with crimes and asked to explain himself - Princes let him live because they wanted to weaken the power Martin Luther’s Bible (1522) - Catholic church ex-communicates him - He translates the bible into the German language, now it is accessible to the larger population - The printing press makes materials easily distributive and able to produce mass bibles - Increased literacy and knowledge Luther’s Protestant Reformation (Lutheran Church) o Three Sacraments rather than seven: - Faith, Baptism, and Holy Communion - Marriage of pastors - Religious symbolism John Calvin (1509-1564) & King Henry VIII (1509-1547) - Calvin was French, and started reforming, went to Switzerland, and sent pamphlets down through France - Predestination - Calvin’s Church was designed to look more educational on the outside, and more elaborate on the inside - England becomes a Protestant Country - King Henry VIII, went in search of a new wife, asked for a divorce with a royal member because “she couldn’t give him a boy” - Starts his own church because they wouldn’t allow the divorce Peace of Christian Faith - Augsburg 1555 – Catholic Church acknowledge that the church has split - Princes in the holy roman empire can determine the faith of their area The French Wars of Religion and The Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre: 1572 - Catholics vs. Protestants - Protestants are hunted down and killed, beaten, and murdered King Henry IV (France) & the Edict of Nantes: 1598 - Money was not being made, with all the killings happening - Society was unpredictable because of the violence - King decides to issue the Edict of Nantes (Declaration of Religious tolerant) - States that other religions can practice their faith freely Ferdinand of Styria - 1619 king of Bohemia - starts replacing protestants with Catholics in high positions - Protestants begin to take a stand The Defenestration of Prague, 1618 - Protestants go into the Prague Castle and confront the catholic leaders - They threw the Catholics out the window; Defenestration – to throw someone out of a window - Everyone who was thrown out the window survived the fall o Catholic Story – as they were tossed out the window, angels came down and protected them o Protestant - when they fell they landed in horse poop and that broke their fall The Battle of White Mountain :1620 - Under the leadership of a catholic general named Tilly - The Catholics defeat the protestants in Bohemia - Protestants wanted to keep going 30 years’ war - a war that should’ve lasted two years, went on for much longer - Mercenary – a solider who fights for money The Sack of Magdeburg: 1631 - The city was completely destroyed and erased - they took over everything brutally, the stole food and raped women - after a city had been taken over the entire communities were killed and hanged The Peace of Westphalia, 1648 - Ends the war with no definite victor - < starts with defenestration of Prague -> ends with Peace of Westphalia> - represents the birth of modern diplomacy Absolutism & The Glorious Revolution of 1688 Absolutism - Nobles had to pay taxes - Emphasis on court culture (Elaborate royal lifestyle) - All sovereignty rests with the monarch - The monarch controls the military, judicial system, etc - Divine Infallibility and Mortal weakness - Divine Right Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642) & Louis XIII (1601-1643) - Gets France involved in the war - Nobles have to put up the money for the war - Fronde – nobles who start an up rise Cardinal Mazarin (1602-1661) & Anne Austria (1601-1666) - Louis XIV mother ruled France, until her son was old enough to rule Louis XIV - Decided when he wants to be king of France that he doesn’t want a religious advisor - He wants to be the embodiment of the French Power The Palace of Versailles - Louis XIV wants to express his greatness by building a palace, that was at this time unmatched - He keeps the nobility separated by bringing groups of them to Versailles, not all at once, so they can go back to their hometowns and speak positively on the king’s behalf - He basically wines and dines them, to make him appear more likeable Jean Domat: “on a social order and absolute Monarchy” - Task was to justify the lifestyle of Louis XIV - He justifies this by saying its God’s Plan - Its powerful because no one wants to question God’s word - Maintains social order and aristocracy - They don’t rise up because the think its considered a rise up against God Jean Baptiste Colbert - Mercantilism – export a lot and have the government regulate what you take in - He worked for Louis XIV - Puts tariffs on imports to control economy Louis XIV - Revoked the edict of Nantes - Says France is strictly Catholic - Hugenot – Protestants who fled from France - Louis XIV will expand the territory of France - The territories they gain will go back and forth between France and Germany Constitutional Monarchy - Royal government limited by laws of representative body - Parliamentary control over at least part of the budget - Free Elections and regular meetings - Independent judicial branch - The nobility makes up the parliament Magna Carta: 1215 - Document that effectively gave the nobility the right to check the king. - The nobility was granted a little power - The nobility was actually very fortunate and wealthy King Henry VIII - Learned that he had to work with the parliament to display power - When King Henry the VIII dies, he has an hire, when the kings son dies he will not leave an hire to the thrown Queen Mary I & Lady Jane Grey - These were two people who could take the crown after Edward the 6 th - Queen Mary (catholic) retains rein over England - She wanted the Catholics to be in power again Queen Elizabeth I (1533-1601) (rules 1558) - King Henry XIII daughter who was a protestant - Known as the virgin queen, because she never got married or had kids - She was well respected by males in the political world - Under her rule England becomes a world power Phillip II of Spain & the Spanish Armada (1588) - Didn’t like the way Henry XIII was running England - Wanted to take England by force and regain the territory and make it catholic again - The invasion attempt failed, the Spanish had the best navy in the nation until the English defeated them Sir Walter Raleigh & Roanoke Island - Period of expansion King James I: 1566-1625 (formally King James VI of Scotland) - When Elizabeth dies, there is no one to take over the Tudor line - King James starts the line of the Stuart Kings *Charles I of England (Stuart Kings): 1625 - protestant ruler, believed in Divine Right - hesitant to work with parliament because he didn’t want to ask for permission to do things - leads England to a civil war because he doesn’t work with parliament Oliver Cromwell: 1599-1658 - Puritans – believed that God was on their side - Puts together an army called The New Model Army - Under his leadership this army learns tactics on how to attack, when they are separated The Death of Charles I (1649) - King Charles surrenders, but is killed by being beheaded - Regicide – killing of a king Cromwell & Charles I: The Interregnum - Cromwell decides to take the crown - Cromwell calls parliament prostitutes, and says they will do anything for money and not the good of the people - He ruled by military law - When he dies they decide to put his son in charge, but he was not an effective leader Charles II of England: 1630-1685 - On his death bed he converted to Catholicism James II 1633-1701 - He was Charles the II brother - He was catholic and believed in Divine Right & Absolutism - James has a son William of Orange, 1650-1702 (William the III of England) - James the II daughter was married to William of Orange and was a protestant - Parliament wants them to come to England and over throw her father James II - * Glorious Revolution of 1688* - they rule under parliament, and allow them to have regular meetings - essentially they were just royal figureheads The Scientific Revolution & Enlightenment Reason and rationality Observation Self discovery Breaking with the past Origins: The Renaissance, “re-birth”, the “New World”, the printing press, the protestant reformation & Martin Luther, scientific societies Rene Descartes: 1596-1650: only what can be proven - “I think therefore I am” Francis Bacon: 1561-1626 - Put together the first encyclopedia - “Experiment, truth may only be found in the world around you” Nicolaus Copernicus, 1473-1543 - Believed that the earth was at a different position in the universe - He wrote a book called “on the revolutions of the heavenly spheres” that proved everything - Was responsible for the heliocentric model - People built upon these ideas Johannes Kepler, 1571-1633 - Believed that planets moved in ellipses instead of perfect circles Galileo Galilei’s Trail: 1633 - Developed telescopes, and saw the moon was cratered - Was able to communicate the information easily, so that people could understand it better - Catholics wanted him to recant his information, they put him on house arrest and burnt his transcripts - He was in pursuit of the truth Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) & Principia - Comes up w/ the idea of the universal law of gravity - Universe operates with the rules of natural law - * 1687 publishes the Principa – tells how the world functions The Enlightenment: Origins - Scientific revolution - Recognition by influential rulers - Urban growth, industrial development, and improved communication networks - Desire for change Characteristics: - Reason - Absence of unquestioning faith in religion - Faith in science - Progress - Order in the universe Rahel Varnhagen, 1771-1833 - Women would invite other women and men to come to each other homes to drink and talk about philosophical ideals - Salons - Varnhagen was a Jewish woman, who was extremely bright, who started writing letters to the most influential people during this time, she wanted to be involved Adam Smith, 1723-1790 - One of the fathers of free market capitalism - Law of supply & demand was the “natural law” that made the economy work - Said the government should stay out of the economy, except for it must protect private property John Locke (1632-1704) & “Natural Foundation of Reason” - “You’re never going to create a political system that everyone is happy with, so go with the policies that benefit the greater population.” - “The government must look after the needs of its people, and government who doesn’t do this should be overthrown.” Voltaire (1694-1778) & the Philosophes - Satire literature writer - Made political statements that adhered to the masses *Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) & the Social Contract - believed that there should be a relationship between the government and its people - General will- a guiding principal of how society should be ran - You should do what is best for the common good - “The government is not sovereign; it is there to help order society” - rights come with responsibilities, and you must pay taxes - you don’t get rights, you earn them Immanuel Knat (1724-1804) “what is enlightenment” - Struggled with the idea of what it meant to be enlightened - “The model of enlightenment is to have the courage to use your own reason” - if you have the tools to become enlightened, and don’t use them, then you are lazy.