International Issues of Women's Victimization
International Issues of Women's Victimization CMLGY 3301 31
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gina on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CMLGY 3301 31 at Fairleigh Dickinson University taught by Professor Sacks in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Women and Crime in CRIMINOLOGY at Fairleigh Dickinson University.
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Date Created: 10/13/16
International Issues 10/13/16 2:26 PM Honor Killings o Honor killing – the murder of a woman by a male family member in order to gain back the honor that the woman has taken from the family This is a way for men to preserve the honor of the family and other families These killings usually happen in areas where women are treated as property o They are expected to listen to whatever male family members say 5000 people per year are killed in honor killings, but this is definitely low Prominent in the middle east, particularly Turkey, Lebanon, Pakistan, India In some countries, honor killings have been ‘outlawed’, but the laws aren’t really enforced o It’s a cultural expectation that men will ‘handle’ their familial disgraces and dishonors o Reasons for this include Being too western Being too vocal about their rights Perceived slights on the family Rape victims are usually victims of honor killings Rejecting an arranged marriage Speaking with men outside of the family or outside of their arranged marriage o Methods for honor killings are usually…. Acid Burning Beheading Drowning Stoning Culturally, these murders aren’t dissimilar to instances of killings in America, like if a man were to kill a woman he feels as disrespected him o We view their killings as reprehensible, but our culture’s killings are also reprehensible to them o International courts handle crimes against humanity o They may not be able to outlaw honor killings completely, but they’re supposed to hold nations that have outlawed them responsible The are a cultural occurrence, and it’s difficult for other countries to intervene It’s very difficult to change a cultural value – these cultures have accepted violence against women for thousands of year Human Trafficking o Human trafficking – the forced labor through coercion, force, or fraud of individuals for purposes of prostitution, domestic servitude, and other forms of involuntary servitude o This is the fastest growing criminal enterprise in the world About 4 million people are trafficked per year – and this is a low estimate In revenue, it is estimated that human trafficking produces $30 billion per year – this is also low o There are two main categories Forced labor – this can be anything from working in factories, sweatshops, and farms, and can cover instances all the way to forced domestic servitude within the home o This also includes child soldiers being forced to fight Sex industry – this is forced prostitution o This is the more controversial area, This is because many people who are forced to act as prostitutes are treated as criminals themselves People do not acknowledge that these women were not doing this voluntarily In many cases, these victims will be treated worse than prostitutes in America Reasons for human trafficking include… o Cheap labor o Extreme poverty o Production of guns o The demands for labor have increased because NAFTA has made trade free o Poor familial ties or support systems in general There are certain hubs that become key for trafficking, due to These conditions include… o Extreme poverty o Political or economic instability o Areas that suffer from gender inequalities o Areas with corrupt law enforcement o Documentation is not required in every area An example of this hub is the previous Soviet Union – o Their politics and economy changed when communism fell o Many orphans were left behind Many methods of bringing people into trafficking rings include… o False promises – many victims are promised jobs, and when they arrive for their job, they are thrown into the trafficking rings o Violence o Coercion o The US passed the Trafficking Victims Protection act in 2000 to combat human trafficking This act is severely flawed – there are substantial limitations Temporary visas can be given, but they’re very limited and not everybody gets them o This means the victims are often sent back to the nexus of their abuse, putting them in danger There isn’t enough services to help victims – these people are traumatized and they need help These cases are hard to prosecute This is a crime where prevention is necessary o Educational campaigns to educate people on the methods of abduction and coercion We need to improve our laws on visas and residency need to be stricter with victims, these people need to be protected And lastly these laws need to be enacted thoroughly Nefarious: Merchant of Souls In 20 years, 400,000 people have been trafficked in Moldova Most trafficking is done for the purpose of prostitution Pimps are often drug dealers who have moved on to prostitution, because they sell drugs once but they sell a women multiple times and get a minimum of 7 years of labor. 800,000 of the prostitutes in Thailand are children People are able to buy children from their parents In order for the girls to leave the karaoke bar where they had to work as prostitutes, they needed their parents’ permission. o All three of the mothers said no, that the family needed the money o 80 – 90% of families in Cambodia are selling their daughters into prostitution o Their culture has become one of complacency o If a woman was expecting to have a child, people told her that it they had a daughter and they got into a bad financial situation, she could sell her daughter o These girls had a debt honor, they felt as though they had to prostitute themselves in order to pay back their mothers for bringing them into the world o There are at least 19,250 children trapped in prostitution in Cambodia o Children in America are also sold into prostitution o Prostitution in Las Vegas, Nevada is highly glamorized They initially feel empowered, but eventually begin to feel abused and used o Stockholm Syndrome is a very common reason that prostitutes stay in the business o Sexual abuse is a core factor in how women end up in prostitution 95% of people in prostitution have previous instances of sexual abuse o The average age of entry to prostitution in the US is 13 – 14 o In Sweden, the prostitutes aren’t arrested, they’re offered services to get out of prostitution The traffickers and pimps were arrested They have created a very bad business environment They have the lowest rate of trafficking in EU o Many of the girls who are rescued from trafficking are in counseling for the rest of their life Many of are scarred for life – it makes it hard for them to live a normal life Many of the girls who do leave prostitution end up going back to it, as these are the conditions they’re used to o These girls also don’t think of themselves as human anymore, for the most part o They believe that they deserve this life o Some of the girls who have been trafficked into prostitution turn to drugs as a way to distract themselves from the despair of their situation
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