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Biol 2401

by: Shelby Hollier

Biol 2401 BIOL 2401

Shelby Hollier
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These notes cover the exam one material which is body systems and chemistry. They also cover exam 2 material which is histology.
Anatomy and Physiology 1
Brian Scoggins
Class Notes
anatomy, and, Physiology, Scoggins, Tarleton, scinece




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This 21 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shelby Hollier on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2401 at Tarleton State University taught by Brian Scoggins in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology 1 in Science at Tarleton State University.


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Date Created: 10/13/16
Anatomy and Physiology Lecture 1( 8/29/16) Anatomy: the study of structure or shape of body parts and their relationships to each other Physiology: the study of function (how the parts work) Levels of Structural Organization: the hierarchy of structural complexity beginning with simple going all the way to complex organisms 1) Chemical level- atoms (and parts) and combinations of atoms called molecules 2) Cellular level- cells are basic structural and functional units of life 3) Tissue level- groups of similar cells (and their intercellular material) which work together toward a specific function (also have common embryological origin) Ie. Muscle, blood, nerves 4) Organ level- a structure composed of 2 or more tissue types= work together to perform function 5) System level- an association of organs which cooperate to accomplish a purpose 6) Organism level- the sum total, a collection of structurally and functionally integrated systems System name and function 0N FIRST TEST 1) Integumentary System- forms the external body and covering FUNCTION: synthesizes vitamin D, site of Pain, sweat and oil glands 2) Skeletal Systems- provides a frame work FUNCTION: mineral storage, protects and supports 3) Muscular Systems- allows manipulation of environment FUNCTION: maintains postures, facial expression 4) Nervous Systems- fast acting control system FUNCTION: stimulates responses from other systems 5) Endocrine Systems- glans secrete hormones that regulate process such as growth 6) Cardiovascular System- blood vessel transport FUNCTION: carries O, CO2, nutrients and waste 7) Lymphatic System- picks up fluid from blood vessels and returns it to the blood, while it filters it through lymphocytes 8) Respiratory System- the gaseous exchange between the walls of the air sacs of the lungs 9) Digestive System- breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood, indigestible substances turn into feces 10) Urinary System- eliminates nitrogenous waste from the body and regulates water, electrolyte and acid-base balance of the blood 11) Male and Female Reproduction Systems- production of off-spring Testes- produce sperm, stores it, delivers it Ovaries- produces egg, stores it, cite of fertilization and development of fetus Mammary Gland of Female Breast- produces milk A & P Lecture 2 8/31/2016 Homeostasis- the condition of maintaining the body’s internal environment in a constant state Ie) temp, blood pressure, and glucose level Stress- anything that disturbs or unbalances the internal environment Homeostatic Mechanisms: those mechanisms which are generally self- regulating and maintain homeostasis Feedback Systems- a conceptual way of viewing homeostatic mechanisms operate…..control center 1) Positive Feedback (rare) - a change in one direction that accelerates more change in the same direction- Ie) blood clotting, milk ejection, labor contractions and orgasm 2) Negative Feedback- a change in one direction that causes change in opposite direction * how most homeostatic mechanisms function Chemistry Matter- anything which occupies space and has mass Mass- something that gravity acts upon Energy- the capacity to do work- to put mater into motion Element- a fundamental unique substance which cannot be broken down- composed of building blocks called atoms Atoms- smallest subdivision of an element which still displays elements unique characteristics *over 100 elements in the body *99% is composed of bodies mass= 6 elements 1) Oxygen 65% 2) Carbon 18% 3) Hydrogen 10% 4) Nitrogen 3% 5) Calcium 2% 6) Phosphorus 1% Atomic Structure (look at notes for picture) Energy levels- or orbitals that contain electrons Nucleus- core contains protons and neutrons *if number of protons = number of electrons the atom is neutral *each element has a unique number of protons LOOK AT NOTES FOR PICTURE OF PLANETARY MODEL AND ORBITAL MODEL *Change number of Neutrons= changes isotope *Change proton= changes element Atomic Number- number of protons *Neutron weight and mass = proton weight and mass BUT 200x more than electron Atomic Weight (aka Mass Number)- number of protons plus number of Neutrons Isotopes- atomic variations of an element = difference in number of neutrons and protons IF YOU CHANGE THE NUMBER OF PROTONS IT COMPLETELY CHANGES THE ELEMENT *an atom tries for stability = full valence set of electrons 1) First orbital when full = 2 2) Second and on when full = 8 A&P Lecture 3 9/7/2016 Valence Shell- the outer energy level Valence- the combining capacity of an atom (it amounts to a number indicating the number of extra or deficient electrons in an atoms valence shell) Inter Element- those which are stable (due to full outer level) and therefore chemically inactive Chemical Reaction- (rxn) when atoms combine with or break apart from other atoms Chemical Bond- a force of attraction between atoms due to outer level electrons Molecule- 2 or more atoms joined together by chemical bonds Compound- a molecule composed of atoms of 2 or more different elements Ion- a charged particle that is the result of an atom which has either gained or lost an electron 1) Anion- negatively charged ion (gained electrons) 2) Cation- positively charged ion (lost electrons) Ions have either – or + after chemical symbol Chemical Bonds : 3 types 1) Ionic Bond- a chemical bond due to a transfer (one loses or gains) of elcetrons, the resulting oppositely charged ions are attracted to each other 2) Covalent Bond- involved the sharing of electrons (1,2, or 3) from outer energy levels. These are stronger, more stable, and common. a) As the number of bonds (1,2,or 3) grows the strength of the bond and rigidness of bond grows b) Stronger due to sharing c) Not always equal in sharing  If they are unequal in sharing the bond becomes Polar = one is slightly negative and the other is positive  If equal they are non-Polar Ie) water- it falls as rain drops because water is attracted to itself 3) Hydrogen Bonds- type of bond that is too weak to bond atoms into molecules which causes them to “fold” into 3 dimensional shapes a) Due to polar covalent bonds- dipoles are attracted to each other they are weak alone but together strong b) They attract each other Hydrophobic- water fearing – non polar Hydro - water attracting- Chemical Reactions- the making or breaking of bonds and (maybe) a rearranging of bonds- pass into new molecules with new properties 1) Energy change 2) Forming bonds (consume energy) 3) Breaking bonds (releasing energy) *Chemical Bonds store energy Types of Chemical Reactions 1) Anabolic (Synthetic) reactions- combining of 2 or more atoms: A+B->AB 2) Catabolic (decomposition)- opposite of anabolic: CH4->C+H4 3) Exchange Reaction- combo of two “switching partners”: AB+CD-> AC+BD How/ Why Chemical Reactions Occur 1) Atoms collide with enough force to overcome the repulsion of their “electron cloud” a) In this case interactions between valence electrons occur 2) Activation Energy- the energy necessary to disrupt one electron configuration and allow rearrangement 3) Increase Reactions a) Increase temperature b) Increase concentrations or pressure *Catalyst (enzymes)- lower activation energy Chemical Compounds 2 Classes 1) Inorganic Compounds- generally are small molecules, generally ionic bonded and do not include carbon with EXCEPTS being CO and CO2, MOST dissolve in water 2) Organic Compounds- generally large, almost always covalently bonded, ALWAYS includes C & H, dissolves POORLY in water. Inorganic Compounds 1) Water- most abundant *important in living material (70% of human weight) *water is polar covalent molecule Important reactant – involved in reactions High vaporization = intakes a lot of energy before its hydrogen bonds break 2) Salts, Acids, Bases Molecules of acids, bases, and salts dissolves in water *in the process they ionize dissociating into their constituents cations and anions *often called electrolytes because their +/- charges conduct electricity Acids When dissolves they dissociate into (H+) ions Base When dissolved it dissociates, forming hydroxyl ions (OH-) Ie) NaOH->OH-&Na+ Hydroxyl ions (OH-) are strongly attracted to protons (H+) = called proton acceptors Base= alkaline *Acids and bases react and exchange reaction to form Salt+ H20 = neutralization Ie) HCL + NaOH -> NaCL+H20 Salts When dissolved dissociates into anions and cations but neither H+ or OH- PH: Acid –Base Concentration The more hydrogens = more acidic The more hydroxyls = more basic PH below 7.0 = Acidic PH above 7.0 = basic *blood= 7.35 -> 7.45 Organic Compounds Carbon had 4e- so it needs 4 more to achieve stability 1) Carbohydrate Serve body as fuel & form storage molecules Used as a “backbone” for complex molecules Composed of water C Three classes a) Monosaccharides- “simple sugars” used cells as energy b) Disaccharides -two simple sugars bonded, during this reaction - a molecule of H20 is removed this called dehydration 2 sugars -> disaccharide c) Polysaccharides – longer chains of simple sugars, used as storage molecules - Glycogen- storage carbohydrate found in and made by animals *( Disaccharides and polysaccharides are what we usually eat, but in order to pass through a cell membrane (and get into our body) they are first broken down to Monosaccharides). 2) Lipids A diverse group of organic compounds non-polar and insoluble in water…. But soluble in anon-polar substance ie) alcohol Functions: structural insulating Long term energy storage Hormones and vitamin precursors Types a) Neutral Fats/ triglyceriods- fats and oils {long terms storage and insolations} 3 fatty acid chains attached to a glycerol Saturated- have no double bonds in fatty acid chain Unsaturated- have one or more double bonds (if more than one- polyunsaturated b) Phospholipids- modified fats containing a polar phosphate group in place of a fatty acid IMPORTANT in membranes because they are polar at one end = they assume a certain orientation in water *break large things of fat apart because the non-polar end bonds w/fat and polar end bonds w/water = fat gets washed out c) Steriods- instead of hydrocarbon chains they have a ring structure, in spite of the bad press steroids get due to heart disease and athletic misuse, they are essential in life 3) Proteins Very complex molecules made up of chains of subunits called amino acids Functions - Structural - Contractive - Regularity - 02 transport - Immunity *there are 20 amino acids all contain C,H,O and N and sometimes S they are bonded together in various sequences into chains of varying length and number of amino acids Their bonds are formed by dehydration and are called PEPTIDE BONDS *most are synthesized by our body the rest we get through our diet “essential amino acids” POLYPEPTIDE= PROTEIN Levels of organization 1) Primary structure- the sequence of amino acids in polypeptide chain 2) Secondary structure- the way primary structure folds into shape 3) Tertiary structure- any other folding after secondary structure 4) Quaternary structure- 2 or more proteins bonded together The overall shape of a protein is determined by the primary structure or sequence…..since the type/ sequence of amino acids determines where other bonds can be  Shape of protein defines function Denaturation- changing a single AA or heating a protein will alter its shape because you change the bonds also may destroy proteins function 4 Nucleic Acids- large organic molecules containing C, H, O, N and sometimes Phosphorus - They are composed of chains of subunits, which are called NUCLEOTIDES 1) NUCLEOTIDES contain- a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate and a nitrogen base 3 types 1) Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)- found primarily outside the nucleus in the cytoplasm. It is involved in protein synthesis - Single stranded with a backbone ( made out of 5-carbon sugar “ribose” alternating with phosphate groups - The 4 nitrogen bases attached to the back bone are 1) Guanine G 2) Cytosine C 3) Adenine A 4) Uracil U 2) Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)- found only in the nucleus - Carrier of genetic code - The 5-carbon sugar is deoxyribote - Shape = double helix (twisted ladder) formed by two strands of nucleotides, parallel to each other and H- bonded together by the bases (=rungs) - Nitrogen Bases 1) Guanine GC 2) Cytosine C 3) Adenine AT 4) Thymine T  Sequence of bases = genetic code SIDE NOTE Mixture Terminology 1) Solvent: Liquid (or gas) in which some other material is dissolved 2) Solute: the dissolved material 3) Solution: combo of above, generally a solute will not settle out of a solution unless intervention of chemical or physical 4) Suspension: opposite of solution- material will settle Lecture 7 9/26/2017 Test 2 Material Histology- the study of tissues Tissues- groups of similar cells with a common embryological origin which function together in a specialized activity Four types a) Epithelial tissue b) Connective tissue c) Muscle tissue d) Neural tissue Epithelial tissue - specialized either for covering/lining body surfaces and cavities, or it is the secretory portion of a gland - Protect the inside of the body from outside sources - Cells are tightly bound together into continuous sheets of either single or multi-layered cells - It is innervated (has nerve supply) but is avascular (no blood vessels) - Gets energy through diffusion because the blood vessels are in the layers underneath - Has an exposed surface and a basal surface, which is attached to an underlying , non-living, adhesive basement membrane a) Basal Lamina- glycoprotein glue secreted by epithelial cells b) Reticular lamina- collagen fibers secreted by connective tissues - Epithelial cells are highly regenerative (capable of mitosis) - Classified by a) Shape- squamous (flat), cuboidal or colummar b) Layers 1) Simple- 1 cell thick….. adapted a) Simple squamous b) Very thin and permeable, highly adapted to allow diffusion/ filtration c) In lungs- gas exchange d) Kidneys- filtration membrane e) Endothelium- lines heart, blood vessels and lymph vessels f) Simple cuboidal g) Adapted mainly for secretion and some absorption (found in glands and kidneys) h) Simple Columnar i) Usually consist of two types of cells (1 absorption 1 secretive) j) Absorptive cells have microvilli which are folds serving to increase absorptive surface area k) Goblet cells are secretory (mucus) found amongst the other cells 2) Stratified (layered) a) Stratified squamous b) Lines mouth, throat, anus, vagina, and covers body - Glandular Epithelium 1) Gland- 1 to many cells which produce and secrets some product 2) Two types a) Exocrine- secretes into a duct (tube) which opens onto a surface (ie. Sweat) b) Endocrine- no ducts (tubes) they secrete into extracellular fluids, their fluids their secretions are hormones and diffuse into blood stream. 3) Glands can be classified by how their product is discharged a) Merocrine- secrete their products by exocytosis (which does not harm the cells) (ie.sweat) b) Apocrine- a part of the cell “pinches off with the enclosed secretory product cell then repairs itself (ie. Mammary gland) c) Holocrine- product keeps accumulating units cell does and ruptures….so the cell is part of the secretion (ie. Oil glands) Connective Tissues- 1) Functions- binds and supports, protects and insulates, separates tissues, transports blood 2) Characteristics- - Have extensive extracellular matrix which is non-living with widely separated cells scattered throughout the matrix - Are highly vascular and innervated (good blood supply)-(except for cartilage….cartilage does not heal well due to low blood supply) - Do not occur on free surfaces - The nonliving matrix contains fibers - the matrix is maintained by the scattered cells - the matrix determines the tissues qualities 3) fibers found in the matrix a) Collagen Fibers- the strongest and most abundant… consist of bundles of protein (collagen). These fibers are flexible but do not stretch b) Elastic Fibers- thinner, branching fibers made of elastin (protein) it does stretch and recoil c) Reticular Fibers- thin, branching collagen fibers form a net-like mesh 4) Cells - Blast- refers to immature cells actively secreting extracellular matrix (creating or fixing something) (ie. Fibroblast) - Clast- immature cells actively breaking down matrix (destroying something (ie.fibroclast) - Cyte- mature cell, less active….just maintains the matrix (fibrocyte) - cells can switch from one to the other 5) Other cell types - Macrophage- large immune system cells which are actively phagocytic (eat things) mobile. They seek out damage and or invaders - Mast cells- “watch dogs”, they detect invasion and initiate inflammation (and signals macrophages to come fix the problem) 6) Loose connective tissues - Areolar Connective Tissue a) Most widely distributed has a semifluid matric with all three types of fibers randomly woven b) Serves as a storage reservoir for water and solutes c) Often found as “packing” between 2 muscles or muscle and skin - Adipose a) Really just areolar with a lot of adipocytes… primarily an insulator, shock absorber, food reserve - Reticular Connective Tissue a) Reticular cells and fibers form a supportive network or scaffolding inside soft organs 7) Dense connective tissue - Dense irregular a) Fibers run in all directions, usually found as fascia wrapping muscles, nerves, bones, etc. b) Fascia – as sheet of dense irregular connective tissue - Dense regular a) Fibers run in one direction, built to resist tension in one direction (rope like) - Found as a) Tendons- connecting muscle to bone b) Ligaments- connecting bone to bone c) Aponeuroses- connecting muscle to muscle (ie. Aponeuroses connect your stomach muscle together) 8) Cartilage - sort of halfway between dense conn tiss and bone it had a dense collagen or elastin fibers in a rubbery matrix - There are chondrocytes maintaining this matrix, the chondrocytes live in empty spaces called lacunae surrounded by the matrix - Cartilage is an exception among conn. Tiss. In that has no blood vessels or nerves, it is supplied by diffusion from a fascia covering called the perichondrium - Consequently cartilage is very slow to heal, does so imperfectly, and tends to become mineralized (boney) with age or damage - Three types a) Hyaline- most abundant and weakest, found: covering the ends of long bones (called articular (together) cartilage) b) Fibrocartilage- strongest, very dense. Found: as disk between some bones (vertebrae, pelvic bones, knee joint). c) Elastic Cartilage- fibers are mostly elastin found: in ear, auditory tube and epiglottis d) Blood- a fluid connective tissue, the matrix is called plasma… has fibers but they don’t solidify until time to clot. e) Osseous tissue- (bone) the widely separated cells are called osteocytes the matrix is 1/3 collagen and 2/3 mineral salts a) Bone does have a vascular system with blood vessels running through central canals, perforating canals and canaliculi to service the cells in each lacuna b) Functions: A) Support/protection of soft tissue B) Serves as points of muscle attachment C) Mineral storage D) Production of blood cells Muscle – highly cellular and highly vascular. Specialized for contraction - Functions a) Movement, maintenance of posture production of heat - 3 types a) Skeletal- or striated: body movement and posture b) Cardiac- heart c) Smooth – found in walls of hollow organs and blood vessels Neural Tissue - Two major types a) Neurons- specialized to receive a stimulus convert it to an impulse and conduct it on. Neurons are the functional units of the nervous systems 1) Perikaryon- cell body-> contains nucleus and organelles 2) Axon- long cellular extensions that conducts impulses away from the perikaryon 3) Dendrites- branched cellular extensions that receive a stimulus convert it to an impulse and conduct it toward perikaryon b) Neuroglial cells- specialized cells which support, protect, nourish or insulate the neurons Membranes-multicellular sheets having 2 tissues types - Covering and lining membranes- consist of a sheet of epithelium and its underlying connective tissue 1) Mucosa- (or mucous membrane) these are “wet” epithelial membranes found lining body cavities which open to the exterior a) Mucosa epithelial cells are tightly joined to each other to prevent invasion and the mucus from their goblet cells. Lubricate, prevent drying and trap particles 2) Cutaneous Membranes- (skin) a dry epithelial membrane (aka integumentary system) 3) Serosa (serious membrane)- these are wet membranes which line “closed” body cavities (not open to exterior) a) They consist of a parietal layer which covers/lines the body wall and visceral layer which is next to and covers organs b) Ie) Pleura- lines thoracic cavity/lungs, Pericardium- heart, Peritoneum- lines abdominopelvic cavity and or organs - Synovial Membranes- (bags of fluid) do not contain epithelial tissues, are layers of areolar and adipose tissue Synovial membranes line the cavities within joints and covers tendons. They produce a lubricating and nourishing synovial fluid. Integumentary System Integumentary system- the skin and its derivatives (such as hair,nails and glands) Function - Protection- is a physical and chemical barrier to abrasion invasion dehydration and ultraviolet - Temperature regulations- through producing perspiration which lowers body temperature - Stimulus perception- nerve ending detect: touch, temperature - Excretion- perspiration also serves to eliminate bodily waste - Synthesis of vitamin D- conversion of type of cholesterol into vitamin D happens in epidermis with the help of UV-light - Blood/ water reservoir- the dermis is extensively vascular and store large volumes of blood until needed elsewhere Three layers of the integument 1) Epidermis- stratified squamous epithelium (epidermis and Dermis are the only actually two layers) 2) Dermis- mostly dense, irregular, connective tissue 3) Hypodermis- areolar and adipose Epidermis- consist of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium cells of 4 types: 1) Keratinocytes- - Produce a fibrous protein- keratin that is waterproof and abrasion resistant - Most cells in the epidermis are of this type - Those at the surface are dead and essentially just bags of keratin 2) Melanocytes- produce the protein melanin which is the primary cause of skin color. 3) Langerhan’s cells ( epidermal dendritic cell)- special macrophages that wonder around 4) Merkel Cells- (tactile cells) one type of touch receptors Layers 1) Stratum Basale- this is the mitotic (dividing) layer, it is one cell layer thick of mostly keratinocytes which are continuously dividing and replacing worn out cells above them 2) Stratum Spinosum- (about 8-10 rows) of irregularly shaped cells which are beginning to produce keratin 3) Stratum Granulosum (3-4 rows) of darkly staining cells full of keratin granules, the nuclei beginning to degenerate now as nourishment source gets further away 4) Stratum Lucidum- (2-3) rows of clearish cells (only in palms ad pedal surface 5) Stratum Corneum- (25 ish rows)- of shingle like cells remnants filled with keratin- protective No blood in epidermis cells are nourished by diffusion Dermis- the thicker connective tissue layer beneath the epidermis 2 Regions 1) Papillary region- contains dermal papilla, these are projections where the dermis protrudes into the epidermis 2) Reticular region- (dense, irregular connective tissue also may have adipocytes hair follicles sebaceous and sudoriferous glands) responsible for the skins elasticity Hypo Dermis- composed of areolar/ adipose which anchor skin to underlying tissues while still allowing some sliding - This layer serves as a shock absorber and insulator - Contains Pacinian Corpuscles which are the nerve endings sensitive to pressure Skin Color- would be essentially clear if not for three pigments 1) Carotene- a yellowish pigment which collects in stratum corneum and in adipose 2) Hemoglobin- oxygen carrying pigment in blood, gives skin its pinkness 3) Melanin- ranges in color form orange to brown to dark brown, everyone has it (except albinos) it is produced by melanocytes in the stratum basale. - the amount produced is influenced by: 1) genetics 2) exposure to UV light (which stimulates an increase in melanin synthesis). Melanin shields the deeper cells from UV radiation by absorbing it - so skin color is blended of 3 pigments as influenced by genetics and environment Epidermal Derivatives (created by the stratum basale) Hair- somewhat protective (in the nose or eyelashes or from sun/cold) - Shaft- the visible portion…consist of three layers of dead cells, forming keratin “shingle”. (Essentially stratum granulosum, lucidum and corneum) - Root- below surface portion, extends at least into dermis (maybe hypodermis) has the same three layers of dead cells. 1) The root is surrounded by an extension of three epidermis (strata basale and spinosum) which form a sheath called a follicle. 2) The enlarged root base is called the bulb, it has and indention into is called the papilla of hair. - Into the papilla (connective tissue) come blood vessels to nourish the epidermis. It’s the stratum basale in the bulb area of the follicle which produces the cell which become a hair - Arrector pili muscle- smooth muscle attached to follicle and anchored in dermis. It contracts and pulls hair up/out from skin in response to cold or fright (goose bumps) - If a cross section of hair it a) Round= hair is straight b) Oval= wavy c) Flat= curly - Nails- are also epidermal modifications, with very little remaining function. a) Nails are very keratinized dead cells b) Produced by the stratum basale c) The nail itself is stratum corneum - Glands: 1) Sebaceous glands- (oil) exocrine glands usually found in association with a hair follicle. They secrete by the holocrine method a) Their secretion is called sebum, it is a mixture of cholesterol, fats, and cell fragments which serve to protect from drying and it inhibits bacterial growth 2) Sudoriferous Glands- (sweat) a mixture of water, salts, and organic waste (very similar to urine) it functions to eliminate waste and to regulate body temperature a) Eccrine- small, coiled tubular glands 1) Merocrine secretion method 2) Found everywhere except lips, nipples and genitals 3) Their sweat is 99% water b) Apocrine- larger coiled tubes 1) Apocrine secretion method 2) Open only into pubic hair follicles 3) Begin functioning until puberty 4) Has more organic waste c) Ceruminous glands- modified sudoriferous glands 1) Found in external auditory meatus (ear canal) 2) Secretion reacts with sebum to produce cerumen a waxy protective substance Injury/ Tissue Repair Contact Inhibition- cells will migrate and divide unless they are in contact with other cells of the same tissue type Regeneration- replacement of destroyed tissue with the same kind of tissue Fibrosis- proliferation of fibrous connective tissue: as a repair (scar formation) A wound which only penetrates as far as the stratum basale is healed by migrating basale cells, no scar Deeper wounds: (wounds penetrating into the dermis) 1) Inflammation - Damaged cells (and most cells release) Histamine which causes vascular dilation and increases blood capillaries permeability - this allows more blood to enter the wound - a blood clot forms, sealing wound from both external world and from the surrounded healthy tissue (scab= dead tissue and blood clot) 2) Organization - The surviving adjacent cells divide and migrate beneath the dead tissues - A new basale layer is formed beneath the dead (necrotic) tissue (when picking a scab and it bleeds again it means the stratum basale hasn’t been created yet) - New blood vessels grow into the area - Fibroblast migrate creating new fibrous networks - The repaired connective tissues that do not “match” the original are called granulation tissues (scar tissue) 3) Regeneration and Fibrosis - Epidermis replaces itself perfectly through regeneration - Connective tissues are replaced by fibrosis - The scar may be visible or not visible depending on the severity of the wound Tissue repair is dependent on the type of tissue that is damaged 1) Epithelium- heals rapidly and almost perfectly 2) Connective Tissue- repairs strong and fairly rapidly, but organization is different in appearance 3) Muscle and Nerve- do not replace destroyed cells, just seal it off with connective tissue and work around it Burns - Tissue damage by heat, electrical, chemicals, or radiation - Burns destroy to some degree the epidermis, allowing microbial invasion, extensive fluid, electrolyte, and protein loss and loss of temperature control - The immediate danger is loss of fluids and solutes - Fluid loss reduces the volume of blood and it thickens - Blood pressure drops - The will cause renal shutdown (kidney failure) and shock and toxic poisoning - After fluid replacement and about 24 hours, the next major danger is infection - Are classified by depth and by surface area % 1) 1 degree- superficial strata, little or no scarring (ex. Sunburn) 2) 2nd degree- some dermal damage, pain and mild scaring rd 3) 3 degree- integumentary system (or more) destroyed, little or no pain, dry charred appearance, extensive scarring, slow healing need for grafts, possible death Cancer 1) Tumor or neoplasm- an excessive growth due to uncontrolled cell division 2) Benign Tumor- usually harmless because the cells are unlikely to spread to other parts of the body they stay clumped 3) Metastasize- migration of cancer cells to other parts of the body, produces secondary, multiple tumors 4) Malignant tumor- one that is likely to metastasize, often the cause of death is that the tumor crowds out the functionally necessary cells Metabolism - Nutrients- a chemical substance used by the body to provide energy, promote growth, maintenance, repair, or aid in the functioning of normal body processes - 6 categories 1) Carbohydrates- source: primarily plants and milk 2) Lipids- source: saturated= animal and unsaturated= plant 3) Proteins- source: plants and animal. Usage: structural and regulatory molecules (enzymes/hormones) 4) Water- a solvent, reactant, lubricant, temperature regulator, etc. 5) Vitamins- are organic molecules that the body cannot synthesize…..but needs for normal metabolism often they are part of an enzyme (therefore must consume them or their precursors) 6) Minerals- are necessary inorganic elements or small molecules which are often used as (essential portions of larger molecules, ions, or to mineralize such things as bone) - Metabolism- the sum of all the chemical reactions occurring within an organism a) Anabolism- synthesis (build up reactions) which consume energy (creating bonds) b) Catabolism- decomposition or breakdown reactions which release energy (breaking bonds) that was stored in the chemical bonds Enzymes - Activation Energy- the energy required to start a reaction going - Enzyme- is a biological catalyst a) a catalyst is something which lowers the needed activation energy and this increases reaction rates without getting “used up” - most enzymes are proteins… therefore control of the production of these proteins, is the major bodily control over metabolism - Enzymes are very substrate specific, meaning they catalyze only specific reactions and reactants (substrates) - Are named by adding the suffix- “-ase” to the substrate they act on (such as lipase; peptides; DNAse; sucrose) - Enzymes work primarily by bringing the substrates together and orienting them….. thereby increasing the likelihood of collision and thus of chemical reaction Carbohydrate Metabolism - Digestion reduces polysaccharides to monosaccharides… these are then absorbed and transported to the liver where all monosaccharides are converted into glucose - Glucose Catabolism a) Glucose arrives in the cytoplasm primarily by facilitated diffusion (the facilitator protein is insulin) b) As glucose is broken down completely the energy released is stored in bonds of ATP and some releases as heat Glucose + Oxygen  carbon dioxide + water + ATP + heat C6H12O6+O2CO2+H2O+ATP+heat *oxygen atoms are required) No ATP= dead c) Three Steps 1) Glycolysis  A series of chemical reactions, which converts a 6-carbon glucose into two 3- carbon molecules, called pyruvic acid and 2 net ATP molecules  This takes place in the cytoplasm and does not require oxygen Under aerobic conditions (oxygen present) these pyruvic acids then go on to the next step, which is the Krebs Cycle Under anaerobic conditions (oxygen lacking) the pyruvic acids are converted into lactic acid - If anaerobic conditions persist there will be a buildup of lactic acid - If lactic acid levels got too high it causes muscle cramps 2) Krebs Cycle – ( citric acid cycle)  Another series of reactions which catabolize pyruvic acid into carbon dioxide (CO2) and some ATP is produced along with several intermediate (temporary) energy storing molecule  CO2 is what we exhale and is waste product of the Krebs Cycle 3) Electron Transport  Another series of reactions during which the hydrogens which were removed from glucose in steps #1 and #2 are used to supply the force to produce many ATP  At the end of electron transport those hydrogens are disposed of by attaching them to oxygen (producing H2O)  Electron transport is the oxygen consuming step and the reason we must breathe oxygen The net ATP Production from glucose catabolism - Net result of glycolysis= 2ATP (per glucose) - Net result of Krebs and electron transport is 36 ATP (per glucose) - Net result of glucose catabolism is 38 ATP (as long as there is oxygen present) - Overall: 43% of the energy in the bonds of glucose is “trapped” in the bonds of ATP, the remaining -63% escapes as heat Summary Glycolysis - Oxygen independent- happens under aerobic and anaerobic condition - 2 net ATP produced - Takes place in the cytoplasm Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport - Oxygen dependent - 36 net ATP produced - Takes place in the mitochondria - Krebs Cycle releases CO2 - Electron transport consumes O2 which binds to H+ to form water Calorie- a unit of measurement used to express the hear value of food; it is also used to describe metabolic rates since the amount of heat being produced is directly tied to the rate of glucose catabolism Cal= Kilocalorie cal= calories C=kilocalorie = 1000 calories


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