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Chapter 27

by: RebeccaWiseman

Chapter 27 Biology 106

GPA 3.4
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About this Document

Lecture notes for Wednesday October, 12, 2016. With Dr Sweet.
Organismal Biology
Dr. Elly Sweet and Dr. Lori Nelson
Class Notes




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by RebeccaWiseman on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 106 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Elly Sweet and Dr. Lori Nelson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biology at Washington State University.


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Date Created: 10/13/16
Biology Chapter 27 1) How have animals evolved over time? 2) Describe the animal groups that diverged early on in animal evolution? 3) When did diversity first begin to dramatically change for animals? 4) How do zoologists categorize animals? 5) What are key points about relationships among living animals that are reflected in their phylogeny? 6) Know the basic features of each animal group we discuss 7) When did animals originate and what are early diverging animal groups? a. Ediacaran period- soft bodies, algae, grazing on things b. Paleozoic- explosion of animals c. Sponges- do not have true tissues 8) What are key characteristics of animals in the phylum Porifera (sponges)? 9) What are key characteristics of animals in the phylum Cnidarians? 10) When did animals have an explosion in diversity? a. Figure 27.5 b. Paleozoic period c. Increase in O2, allow different metabolism d. Hoxogenes-in evolution, in body form 11) How do zoologist categorize animals? a. Body Plan, a set of morphological and developmental traits i. There are three important aspects of animal body plans 1. Symmetry, tissues, and body cavities 2. Symmetry a. b. Sponges don’t have symmetry c. Radial- different top and bottom, but same around 3. Tissues a. b. During development, three germ layers give rise to the tissues and organs of the animal embryo c. Ectoderm d. Endoderm e. Mesoderm f. Different parts of the adult 4. Body Cavities a. Most bilaterians possess a body cavity (coelan) b. Heart fluctuates in size 12) What are key points about relationships among living animals that are reflected in their phylogeny? a. Figure 27.10 13) How have animals diversified? a. Lophotochozoa- Mollusca b. Ecdasozoa- Arthropoda c. Punterostomia- Chordata 14) What is an example of a Lophotrchozoan body form? a. All molluses have a similar body plan with three main parts (foot, visceral, mass, and mantle). b. Soft bodied but most protected by hard shell. c. Many molluses also have a water-filled mantle cavity and feed using a rasp like radula 15) What are the origins of Arthropods? a. b. Two out of every three known species of animals and arthropods c. Most species rich groups and were among first to colonize land d. Members of the phylum Arthropoda are found in nearly all habitats of the biosphere 16) How have animals diversified? a. Vertebrates are members of the phylum chordate. All chordates share a set of derived characters 17) What key characteristics do all chordate share? a. b. Notochord, a flexible rod providing support c. Dorsal, hollow nerve cord d. Pharyngeal slits or pharyngeal clefts, which function in filter feeding, as gills, or as parts of the head e. Muscular, past-anal tail 18) What was another major step in chordate evolution? 19) What was a derived character of vertebrae? a. Vertebrae enclosing a spinal cord b. An elaborate skull c. Fin Rays in the aquatic form 20) Vertebrate Diversity a. Which groups have larger numbers today? Jawless or Jawed vertebrae? i. Jawed vertebrae b. Which groups is the most successful predators? i. Chonorichythes c. The vast majority of vertebrates belong to which clade? i. Ostecichayan d. Which ostechthyan lineage adapted to life on land? i. Lobe-fins 21) The move to land a. Figure 27.21


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