Drugs and Individual Behavior - Class Notes, Week 8
Drugs and Individual Behavior - Class Notes, Week 8 PSYCH 3102
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by McKenna Keck on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 3102 at University of Northern Iowa taught by Dr. Linda Walsh in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Drugs and Individual Behavior in Psychology at University of Northern Iowa.
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Date Created: 10/13/16
Drugs & Individual Behavior Week 8 Tuesday, October 11, 2016 No lecture today. We took an exam. Thursday, October 13, 2016 More Stimulants ● Nicotine ○ Introduction to Nicotine ■ A potent (average cig. Contains .52 mg, only about 20% absorbed) & toxic (LD=~60 mg.) stimulant w/ an even worse route of administration. ● The nicotine is only a fraction of what you have to worry about when you’re smoking something. ○ US Recreational Drugs Deaths ■ Smoking causes 1/5 deaths in US each yearr (now ~440,000/yr or 1100/day) leading cause of preventable deaths. ○ Nicotine Basics easily absorbed ■ Nontolerant user experiences symptoms of mild nicotine poisoning: ● Pale, sweaty ● Dizzy, weak in the knees ● Nausea, intestinal cramps ● Sympathetic & CNS arousal ■ Sufficient nicotine can quickly kill you (seizures, respiratory paralysis) (kids, pets & farmers most at risk through accidental ingestion). ● For adults won’t likely happen because of a tobacco product, but because nicotine is often used as insecticide. ○ Drug Action of Nicotine ■ Fits & stimulates acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (“nicotinic receptors”) → cortical arousal ■ Sympathomimetic → body activation ■ Secondary release of DA in pleasure system (addicting, mood elevating, depression relieving effect) ■ Decreased muscle tone → feelings of relaxation ● Part of the reason some people say they smoke to relax. Takes the tension out of some of your muscles. ■ In a dependent smoker → decreased withdrawal symptoms also relaxes ■ Not everyone smokes for the same reason. This is one of the things that has complicated smoking cessation methods. ○ Cigarette Smo Contains: ■ ~500 (dangerous) gaseous compounds including carbon monoxide (CO), ammonia, hydrogen cyanide & benzene → coronary heart disease (CHD) risk ■ About 3,500 different (dangerous) compounds as particles ● Nicotine addictive, only psychoactive component ○ The part that causes dependency & CNS effects. ● Tars - carcinogens & co-carcinogens → Lung disease & cancer risk ○ What Causes the Major Health Consequences of Smoking? ■ Dangerous to heart & cardiovascular system: ● Increases heart rate & blood pressure ● Constricts blood vessels ● Hardens the arteries (arteriosclerosis) ○ They should be flexible in order to change diameter as necessary… ● Increases risk of clotting ○ Major source of heart attack & stroke… ● Increases in blood cholesterol & fatty deposits ● Risk: Cardiovascular Disease > 200,000 US deaths/yr ○ Risk of coronary heart disease & heart attack doubles (quadruples in heavy smokers) ■ Dangerous to the respiratory system: ● Decreases oxygen carried by blood ○ CO bonds to the same thing that’s supposed to carry O around your body… 2 ● Disrupts the ability of the cilia to clear lungs ○ Smoking damages & destroys cilia that clean the lungs in order to be able to absorb2O effectively. If you’re also inhaling all those tars, it’s like a doublewhammy to your lungs… ● Deposits carcinogens & cocarcinogens ● Risk: Respiratory Disease ○ Lung Cancer (~115,000 deaths/yr) ○ Chronic Obstructive Lung Diseases like emphysema & bronchitis (~82,000/yr) ○ Increased respiratory infections ■ Other Effects of Smoking ● Increases risk of almost every cancer: ○ Pancreas, liver, bladder ○ Cervix, colorectal ○ Voice box, mouth, throat ○ Lung cancer spreads to other locations ● Increased stroke & other vascular disease ● Macular degeneration of the center of the retina (makes it difficult to see detail) ● Gum disease; tooth decay & loss ● Aging of skin, wrinkles, psoriasis ● Not an absolute, complete list. ■ Other Smoking Concerns ● Passive smoking (secondhand smoke) is a serious problem for nonsmokers ○ Almost 60% of US children aged 3 11 yrs or almost 22 million children are exposed to secondhand smoke. ○ Secondhand smoke exposure causes about 3,000 lung cancer deaths & 46,000 heart disease deaths annually among adult nonsmokers in the US. ○ If you live or work full time in a smoking environment, you are likely to have blood levels of smoking chemicals equivalent to a light smoker ● Fetal Tobacco Syndrome ○ Smoking during pregnancy produces a dosedependent decrease in oxygen to the baby, resulting in: ■ Shorter, lighter babies w/ smaller heads ■ Doserelated risk of miscarriage, placental problems, bleeding, stillbirth, prematurity, neonatal deaths ■ Some studies show small but consistent increases in SIDS, learning difficulties, hyperactivity & lower IQ in kids born to smoking moms vs non smoking moms, & increased risk of conduct, oppositional defiant & substance abuse disorders as they get older but some of these may be related to genetic factors ■ Health problems increase w/ continued smoking in home ○ Myth of the Safer Cigarette ■ To maintain customer satisfaction, filtered cigarettes use a high tar high nicotine (high T/N) tobacco, counteracting the benefit of the filter & raising the toxicity of sidestream smoke. ■ Low T/N numbers on pack are NOT accurate reflections of the T/N user gets ● They used a machine to get these numbers, & not a person. The findings of this “research” is meaningless. People adjust to satisfy their habit without realizing it. ■ What About Smokeless Tobacco? ● No inhaled gases, but still exposed to carcinogens and addiction ○ More so in some areas of your body than if you were smoking ● Maybe a higher risk of dependency too ● Examples: ○ Chewing Tobacco ○ Dip ○ Nasal Snuff ○ Snus (Scandinavian) (regulated as a food product) ■ Data looks like it could be safer. Also, you never know with early data. ○ Snus (American) (unregulated) ■ No way to know if it’s equivalent to the Scandinavian version ● The New “Chew” may be more discreet but still addictive and cancercausing ○ A dissolvable tobacco ○ Concern with younger people getting involved ■ “Vaping” the Unregulated ECigarette ● 2 months ago the FDA decided to regulate e cigarettes, hookahs & premium cigars. Companies have 2 years to submit their applications showing the research data on their products. ○ It’s not clear how much jurisdiction they have over other substances in the ecig, besides the nicotine. ● They are still, as yet, unregulated. ● No quality control. Scary stuff. ○ There seem to be metals and stuff in there sometimes too. Even nicotine free ones are probably more dangerous than people think. ● If it could be safe, with an appropriate level of nicotine, it would be an improvement over cigarettes. As of right now, not so much. ● You’re still pumping your bloodstream full of a toxic substance, and you can still get hooked on nicotine. *Some lines of notes copied directly from slides in order to maintain testing accuracy. Much of the notes are of the lecture & discussion, & not found on slides.
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