South and Southeast Asian Ancient Art
South and Southeast Asian Ancient Art AAH 1010
Popular in Survey of Art and Architectural History I
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Daria on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AAH 1010 at Clemson University taught by Beth A. Lauritis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Survey of Art and Architectural History I in Arts and Humanities at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 10/13/16
South and Southeast Asia India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Cambodia, Bangladesh, Indonesia Great Bath, Mohenjo-daro ● Pakistan, ca. 2600–1900 BCE. ● Religion may not have dictated politics in the society. ● Possibly a practical function, possible ritual ● Complicated systems for sanitation, irrigation, suggested a developed culture Robed male figure ● From Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan, ca. 2000–1900 BCE. Steatite, 6 7/8 ” high. National Museum of Pakistan, Karachi ● His eyes down suggest meditation ● Stylized beard ● Generalized face could suggest any man. Nude male torso ● From Harappa, Pakistan, ca. 2000 – 1900 BCE. Red sandstone, 3 ¾ “ high. National Museum, New Delhi. ● Looks like movement ● Not “frozen” Seal with seated figure in yogic posture ● From Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan, ca. 2300–1750 BCE. Steatite coated with alkali and baked, approx. 1 3/8” X 1 3/8”. National Museum, New Delhi. ● Writing that’s not yet deciphered ● Suggests a person doing yoga, possible shiva? (god of animals) or a hybrid creature ● Organized society, Need to have things stamped ● Intaglio - carved into soft stone and then use the shape to make a stamp Belief Systems ● The Vedas: foundational religious knowledge written in Sanskrit; establish caste system ● The Upanishads: samsara, karma, moksha (nirvana) key ideas in these texts ● Hinduism: an outgrowth of indigenous beliefs coupled with the Vedas and the Upanishads, codified between 8-500 BCE ● Buddhism: a reaction to indigenous beliefs begun with the preaching of Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha after 500 BCE ● Jain: founded on the teachings of Mahavira (contemporary to Buddha) ○ All arian (worshipped male gods). Lion capital of column erected by Ashoka ● Sarnath, India, ca. 250 BCE. Polished sandstone, 7’ high. Archaeological Museum, Sarnath. ● This is one of many pieces of art in the empire to spread the idea of Buddhism. ● The dharma also was the law, and represented as the circles near the bottom. ● The degree of realism is very close to the naturalistic life. The detail is slightly stylized but mostly close to being real. ● Lotus means getting out of muddy waters (at the bottom) ● The lions refer to Buddha, spreading the doctrine North Elevation of the Great Stupa ● Sanchi, India, third century BCE to rst century CE ● Idea that it goes through the earth. It might represent a sort of structure that unites the earthly life to the heavens. ● Helped make people feel that nirvana was achievable in buddhism. ● Order, symmetry, rationality, harmony. Yakshi, detail of the east torana ● Great Stupa, Sanchi, India, mid-rst century BCE to early rst century CE. Sandstone, 5’ high. ● It may represent fertility because of the mango tree. ● Gender of the lady is clearly defined. Chaitya hall ● Karle, India, c. 50-100 CE. ● There is a stupa at the end of the hall. ● Again, showing how nirvana is reachable to the everyday person, not just elite. Meditating Buddha ● From Gandhara, Pakistan, second century CE. Gray schist, 3’ 7 1/2” high. National Museums of Scotland, Edinburgh. ● Looks realistic, connecting people to buddha. He and nirvana don’t seem so far off. ● Iconography of buddha - hairdo (top knot called ushnisha), tuft of hair on forehead (urna), elongated earlobes, long arms (disproportionately), hand gesture, monks robe, no jewelry. The life and death of the Buddha ● Frieze from Gandhara, Pakistan, second century CE. Schist, 2’ 2 3/8” X 9’ 6 1/8”. Freer Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. (a) birth at Lumbini, (b) enlightenment at Bodh Gaya, (c) rst sermon at Sarnath, (d) death at Kushinagara. Seated Buddha preaching first sermon ● From Sarnath, India, second half of fifth century. Tan sandstone, 5’ 3” high. Archaeological Museum, Sarnath. ● Lotus- “coming out of the mud” ● Wearing a sort of halo “mandorla” showing he is seen as divine by the Buddhists. ● Also relating to the dharma wheel Buddha seated on lion throne ● From Mathura, India, second century CE. Red sandstone, 2’ 3 1/2” high. Archaeological Museum, Muttra. ● Buddha seen in another view ● Not a large human figure as sometimes seen ● Neck folds ● Very different than greek gods Ajanta ● Site general view; 2nd c. BCE - 7th c. CE ● Shows changes in religious views, technology, culture, etc. in the span of 5 centuries. Ajanta Cave 1 ● c. 462-480 CE, Façade/entablature, and Shrine door and the Buddha seated ● Inside the caves Bodhisattva Padmapani ● Wall painting in Cave 1, Ajanta, India, second half of fifth century. ● Bodhisattva is a person who has reached nirvana but stays to help others achieve nirvana. ● He in NOT buddha because he’s got bling. ● He has a large headdress too. ● He’s supposed to be compassionate but kind of looks smug. ● He has a lotus flower as well Interior of cave 19 ● Ajanta, India, second half of fifth century. ● Karma is about your intentions Boar avatar of Vishnu rescues the Earth, cave 5 ● Udayagiri, India, early fifth century. Relief 13’ X 22’; Vishnu 12’ 8” high. ● Vishnu, Shiva, Devi ● Not humanistic, just an emblem ● They can have a human form but also are formless. Shiva as Mahadeva, cave 1 ● Elephanta, India, ca. 550–575. Basalt, Shiva 17’ 10” high. Vishnu Temple (looking north) ● Deogarh, India, early sixth century. ● Shikkura ● Cave inside of a temple idea ● Temporary home for gods and goddesses ● Ascending to heavens in mountain idea ● Radiating out from it. Vishnu asleep on the serpent Ananta ● Relief panel on the south facade of the Vishnu Temple, Deogarh, India, early sixth century. ● Women in the stone carving is showing his feminine side ● Low to medium relief Rock-cut rathas ● Mamallapuram, India, second half of seventh century. From left to right: Dharmaraja, Bhima, and Arjuna rathas. ● Different boulders for different rathas Styles of Temples ● Stupa; Southern style temple; northern style temple Rajarajeshwara Temple ● Thanjavur, India, ca. 1010 ● Meant to feel cave-like ● Tallest temple in northern India ● Represents power structure that was influential ● Dedicated to Shiva ● Hypostyle hall Kailasanatha Temple (looking southwest) ● Ellora, India, second half of eighth century CE. ● One of many temples that are meant to be seen from all angles. ● Ritual Halls Vishvanatha Temple ● (View looking north) Khajuraho, India, ca. 1000. ● Conceptually, it gives a sense of directionality. This shows where you enter, shows you the path you proceed through this space. Mithuna reliefs ● Detail of the north side of the Vishvanatha Temple, Khajuraho, India, ca.1000. ● Ancient porno ● Image not available ● Might show love or “oneness”, passion. Or porno, it’s probably just porno. Shiva as Nataraja ● ca. 1000. Bronze. Tamil Nadu India. ● He is stamping out bad choices. ● Common representation of Shiva. ● Dreadlocks suggest acidic. ● Flame in left hand is fire that takes out universe. END OF THE ERA Death of the Buddha (Parinirvana) ● Gal Vihara, near Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka, 11th to 12th century. Granulite, Buddha 46’ long X 10’ high. ● Started coming up as buddhism was declining. Aerial view of Borobudur ● Java, Indonesia, ca. 800 ● Reminiscent of Stupa. ● Circular formation. ● Idea of representing achieving nirvana as you go through the rounded structure ● Central access plan - entrances aren’t as direct as the temple. ● Increasing levels of importance as you go through. Similar to some Hindu structures at the time. ● It’s about a physical and emotional exercise to get to the center. Harihara ● From Prasat Andet, Cambodia, early seventh century. Stone, 6’ 3” high. National Museum, Phnom Penh. Vishnu lying on the cosmic ocean ● From the Mebon temple on an island in the western baray, Angkor, Cambodia, 11th century. Bronze, 8’ long. Aerial view of Angkor Wat ● Angkor, Cambodia, rst half of 12th century. ● Monuments dedicated to ancestors ● Dwelling place of Vishnu ● Similar to the Vishvanatha Temple because of its shape. ● Somewhat centralized because of the tower lineup, sense of different types of peaks. King Suryavarman II holding court ● Detail of a stone relief, lowest gallery, south side, Angkor Wat, Angkor, Cambodia, first half of 12th century. ● Low relief ● Politics and religion come together in this relief. It shows power of the ruler as well.
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