Abnormal Psych Chapter 8 Notes
Abnormal Psych Chapter 8 Notes Psyc2051
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaija Perkins on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc2051 at The University of Cincinnati taught by Ronis-Tobin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychology at The University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 10/13/16
Chapter 8 – Depressive and Bipolar Disorders Differ from temporary emotional fluctuations Characteristics: affects a person’s well-being, continuous, occurs for no apparent reason, involves extreme reactions Symptoms of Depression= insomnia, change in appetite, fatigue, social withdrawal, reduced motivation, restlessness, change in activity, rumination, inability to concentrate, thoughts of suicide, depressed mood, irritable, anxious Postpartum depression= immediately before or up to 6 weeks after delivery Treatment includes medication and/or therapy (works best in combination) 6 types of faulty thinking= arbitrary inference, personalization, overgeneralize, magnification/exaggeration, polarized thinking, selective abstraction Seasonal Affective Disorder MDD can have a seasonal pattern (associated with changes in daylight, occurs more often in northern latitudes) Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMS): Serious symptoms of depression, irritability Symptoms end shortly after onset of menses Depressive reactions to grief: Normal reactions= may last several years, frequency/intensity diminishes over time Persistent complex bereavement disorder (undergoing study for DSM) Evaluating Mood Symptoms: Brief depressive and hypomanic symptoms can occur Depression occurs in both depressive and bipolar disorders Symptoms vary Severity of symptoms is considered Etiology of Depressive Disorders: Low levels of neurotransmitters (norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine) Depression runs in families Genes interact with environmental factors Cortisol, stress, and Depression overproduction of stress-related hormones play a role in depression People with depression have higher levels of cortisol in their blood Exposure to stress in early development affects cortisol High levels of cortisol can damage the hippocampus (neurons die) Individuals with depression have increased connectivity in the default mode network brain regions (antidepressants normalize connectivity) Reduced activation in prefrontal cortex Increased activity in the amygdala Bipolar Disorder: Bipolar 1= periods of severe mood episodes from mania to depression Bipolar 2= mild form of mood elevation, milder hypomania and depression One depressive episode, one hypomanic episode Cyclothymic disorder = brief hypomania followed by brief severe depression, not as extensive or long lasting “Mixed Features”= simultaneous mania and depression Rapid cycling= 4 or more mood episodes in a 12 month period Mania= various behavior from euphoria to extreme irritability, impairs social and occupational functioning, may involve loss or contact with reality Cognitive symptoms of hypomania/mania: energized, impulsivity, rapid movement, incoherent speech, uninhibited, possible psychotic symptoms, fail to evaluate consequences Bipolar disorder affects 1% of people Very strong genetic component (more than other factors) Usual onset is during teenage years and early twenties Typically diagnosed when mania/hypomania is confirmed Frequency of mood states, severity of depression and mania Onset sometimes directly follows a traumatic event Mixed features= Simultaneous symptoms (opposite symptoms) Rapid cycling= multiple cycles between manic states and depressive states Mood stabilizers= psychotherapy (interventions, family-focused therapy, etc.), medicine (lithium, anticonvulsant drugs, antidepressants) There are commonalities between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder Failure to take meds is a major issue
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