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Abnormal Psych Chapter 8 Notes

by: Kaija Perkins

Abnormal Psych Chapter 8 Notes Psyc2051

Marketplace > The University of Cincinnati > Psychology > Psyc2051 > Abnormal Psych Chapter 8 Notes
Kaija Perkins

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About this Document

These notes include chapter 8 lecture notes for abnormal psychology.
Abnormal Psychology
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaija Perkins on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc2051 at The University of Cincinnati taught by Ronis-Tobin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychology at The University of Cincinnati.


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Date Created: 10/13/16
Chapter 8 – Depressive and Bipolar Disorders Differ from temporary emotional fluctuations Characteristics: affects a person’s well-being, continuous, occurs for no apparent reason, involves extreme reactions Symptoms of Depression= insomnia, change in appetite, fatigue, social withdrawal, reduced motivation, restlessness, change in activity, rumination, inability to concentrate, thoughts of suicide, depressed mood, irritable, anxious  Postpartum depression= immediately before or up to 6 weeks after delivery Treatment includes medication and/or therapy (works best in combination) 6 types of faulty thinking= arbitrary inference, personalization, overgeneralize, magnification/exaggeration, polarized thinking, selective abstraction Seasonal Affective Disorder  MDD can have a seasonal pattern (associated with changes in daylight, occurs more often in northern latitudes) Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMS):  Serious symptoms of depression, irritability  Symptoms end shortly after onset of menses Depressive reactions to grief:  Normal reactions= may last several years, frequency/intensity diminishes over time  Persistent complex bereavement disorder (undergoing study for DSM) Evaluating Mood Symptoms:  Brief depressive and hypomanic symptoms can occur  Depression occurs in both depressive and bipolar disorders  Symptoms vary  Severity of symptoms is considered Etiology of Depressive Disorders:  Low levels of neurotransmitters (norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine)  Depression runs in families  Genes interact with environmental factors Cortisol, stress, and Depression  overproduction of stress-related hormones play a role in depression  People with depression have higher levels of cortisol in their blood  Exposure to stress in early development affects cortisol  High levels of cortisol can damage the hippocampus (neurons die) Individuals with depression have increased connectivity in the default mode network brain regions (antidepressants normalize connectivity)  Reduced activation in prefrontal cortex  Increased activity in the amygdala Bipolar Disorder: Bipolar 1= periods of severe mood episodes from mania to depression Bipolar 2= mild form of mood elevation, milder hypomania and depression  One depressive episode, one hypomanic episode  Cyclothymic disorder = brief hypomania followed by brief severe depression, not as extensive or long lasting “Mixed Features”= simultaneous mania and depression Rapid cycling= 4 or more mood episodes in a 12 month period Mania= various behavior from euphoria to extreme irritability, impairs social and occupational functioning, may involve loss or contact with reality Cognitive symptoms of hypomania/mania: energized, impulsivity, rapid movement, incoherent speech, uninhibited, possible psychotic symptoms, fail to evaluate consequences Bipolar disorder affects 1% of people Very strong genetic component (more than other factors) Usual onset is during teenage years and early twenties Typically diagnosed when mania/hypomania is confirmed  Frequency of mood states, severity of depression and mania Onset sometimes directly follows a traumatic event Mixed features= Simultaneous symptoms (opposite symptoms) Rapid cycling= multiple cycles between manic states and depressive states Mood stabilizers= psychotherapy (interventions, family-focused therapy, etc.), medicine (lithium, anticonvulsant drugs, antidepressants) There are commonalities between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder Failure to take meds is a major issue


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