Introduction to Personality
Introduction to Personality PSY-332-01
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Paige Nelson on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY-332-01 at Dean College taught by Dr. Reno in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Personality in Psychology at Dean College.
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Date Created: 10/13/16
1 P ERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT 1. What is Personality? A. Brain Storm 1. Characteristics and patterns that make people the way they are 2. Way to define social skills 3. How behave daily around others B. Internal vs. External 1. How others see me a Impression on others b Reputation…”trustworthy”,”funny”,”hateful”… c Superficial? 2 How see self—internal a Prince…sum total of all biological innate dispositions, impules… B Origin…Persona 2. Masks worn by actor to play a role 3. Greece…and later in Rome C. Definition 1. Allport listed 50+ 2. State of being a person 3. Characteristics and qualities that form a person’s character 4. Sum total of a person’s physical, mental, emotional, and social characteristics 5. Unique and relatively stable pattern of behaving 6. Enduring internal and external aspects of a person II. What Influences Personality Development? A. Factors 1. Interaction of Nature/Heredity vs Nurture/Environment 2. Not learned vs learned III. Approaches to Studying Personality A. Academic 1. Research…correlation, experiment 2. Academic setting 2 3. Wundt B. Clinical 1. Case study 2. Therapy 3. Freud IV. Theories A. Model of reality 1. Effort to describe, explain, predict, and modify our reality B. Guide our actions 1. Anticipate future based upon past V. My View of Personality A. Create your idea of the perfect person 1. Both extroverted and introverted 2. Dresses profeshionally VI. Other A. Intrapsychic Conflict 1. A Clash between opposing impulses within VII. Psychic Energy A. Case 1. Infant & Mother 2. Learns that Mother feeds, holds 3. Develops a strong desire for mother 4. Much thinking about mother, images, fantasies 5. Strangers are much less desired B. Psychic Energy 1. The “fuel” that powers all mental activity 2. Psyche…ology…psycho analysis C. Libido 1. Ex. Infant’s thoughts, images, fantasies of Mother 2. Typically, drives towards pleasurable thoughts and behaviors 3 3. Sometimes referred to as both sexual and aggressive D. Cathexis 1. Ex. Infant has a strong desire for mother 2. Psychic energy invested in a mental image of object or person VIII. Anxiety is Normal…a part of life A. What is anxiety? 1. Highly unpleasant like intense nervousness 2. See drive reduction; internal tensiondrives 3. Motivated to reduce or satisfy the tension/drive 4. Ego is threatened—anxiety signals a problem B. Conflicts that threaten ago 1. 3 types of anxieties a Reality Anxiety Fear of immediate danger 2 Neurotic anxiety a Conflict between ID and ego 3 Moral Anxiety a Conflicts between ID and Superego IX. Defense Mechanisms A. What? 1. Ego strategies to defend against anxiety provoked by conflicts of daily life 2. Operate unconsciously B. Some DF 1. Repression 2. Denial 3. Reaction Formation 4. Regression 5. Rationalization 6. Displacement 7. Sublimation X. How Does Personality Develop? A. It develops in stages for life B. Each Stage is defined by an erogenous/erotogenic zone 4 1. Area of body capable of producing erotic gratification when stimulated C. Must resolve conflict to move to next stage D. Fixation 1. Portion of libido remains invested in one of the stagesstuck 2. Due to excessive frustration or gratification E. Chart Erotogenic Z Oral B1.5 mouth Feeding weaning Anal 13 Anus Toilet Phallic 35 Penis, Clitoris Oedipus Conflict Sexual Curiosity Latency 6 Puberty Calm Genitals Puberty Genitals Regain Sexual Interest Mature Sexual relationships XI. Case 1: Hank A. How is Hank view by others? Sally? Employer? Customer? B. How does Hank view himself? XII. Phallic Stage A. In boys 1. Oedipus complex 2. Unconscious desire for mother 3. Desire to replace father 4. Castration anxiety: Fears father will cut off penis 5. Resolve: identify with father B. In girls 1. Electra complex 5 2. Conscious desire for father 3. Replace mother 4. Penis envy: envies males because of penis… sense of loss XIII. Thinking Critically About A. Assumptions 1. The unconscious exists and it influences… drives…behavior 2. Early childhood experiences influence behavior 3. The unconscious can be discovered –talk therapypsychoanalysis 4. The ego is developed by age 6, super ego in development 5. Deterministic…heredity… universality…pessimism B. Research 1. Observing his patients…case studies Clinical 2. Listening therapy 3. Personal experiences 4. Dream analysis C. Theorist’s Personal Stories 1. Father was a strict authoritarian 2. Mother was protective and loving 3. Negative view of sex D. Key Concepts 1. Structure of personality b Born id c Ego d Super ego intrapsychic conflict 4 Levels of awareness…iceberg 5 Development of personality—stages… fixation 6 Psychic energy 7 Types of anxiety 8 Defense mechanisms XIV. Case 2: Steve A. Views 1. Player 2. Fears commitment 6 3. Childish B. On himself 1. Thinks he’s unattractive 2. Insecure 7 2. C ARL JUNG : ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY I. Freud & Jung II. We are motivated by Unconscious Instincts A. Instincts 1. Like Freud 2. Innate bio urges B. Examples 1. Hunger, thirst, sex… creativity 2. Moral tendencies, religion—innate III. Psychic Energy Fuels Us A. What? 1. The fuel of mental activity—like Freud B. Libido 1. Syn for psychic energy; not necessarily sexual; general 2. Appetite—desiring, striving, willing IV. Flow of Psychic Energy… Follows several principles A. Principle of Entropy 1. Tendency toward balance 2. Ex. Heat dissipates to cold C Principles of Equivalence 3. Seeks balance…redistributes energy B. Principle of Opposites 1. Psychic conflict between opposing processes 2. Ex. Lovehate; goodevil V. The Structure of Personality A. Psyche 1. Total personality 2. All conscious and unconscious processes – thoughts, feeling, sensations, 8 wishes, etc B. Graphic 1. C. Ego… Conscious 1. Age 4 yrs begins to develop 2. Conscious aspect of the psyche 3. Center of conscious… but not personality**** 4. Collective about what is admitted into consciousness 5. Responsible for identity and continuity 6. Not (vs Freud) servant of unconscious D. Personal Unconscious 1. At birth begins to form 2. Develops from personal experiences; reservoir of the once conscious E. Collective Unconscious 1. Ex. Superman movie 2. Deepest level of the psyche 3. Transpersonal Unconscious—what share with others 4. Inherited and universal experiences and memories of human (and prehuman species) VI. More Parts of Personality A. Persona 1. See Later B. Complex… personal unconscious 9 1. Ex. Napolean complex 2. Psychic energy invested in related emotionally charged thoughts, feeling, or ideas 3. Exert much control over our thoughts 4. See Freud’s cathesis 5. Constellating power 6. Ex. Mother Nurture, home, comfort, authority, caregiver, living, temper 7. Like a magnet that draws related experiences C. Archetypes… collective unconscious 1. Characters, symbols, situations that recur across cultures and in language and literature over time and space 2. “predispose” us to perceive and respond to the world in certain ways; expect, anticipate 3. inherited universal thought form VII. Types of Archtypes A. Short list 1. Mother 2. Father 3. Child 4. Wise old man— 5. Hero B. Self Archtype 1. Central 2. Represents striving for unity of all parts of personality 3. Unity, integration, harmony C. Persona Archtype 1. “mask” 2. Public face and role presented to others 3. Due to socially prescribed roles 4. Conscious as well D. AnimaAnimus Archetype 1. Anima a Feminine, female archetype in males; feminine side 10 b Predisposes understanding of women 2 Animus a Masculine, male archetype in females; masculine side D Shadow 2. Dark side of the psyche 3. Repressed memories, ideas, emotions, weaknesses 4. Close to Freud’s id 5. Ex. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde 6. Project onto others—what most dislike about self VIII. What Makes Us Different? Our Attitudes A. Attitudes 1. Control functions of Ego 2. One dominant, opposite inferior B. Extraversion 1. Oriented toward external world and others; objective C. Intraversion 1. Oriented toward the internal world—thoughts, feelings; subjective; inner experience IX. Different? Our Functions A. Functions 1. Ways of perceiving and processing a person’s external and internal world X. Jung’s Personality Types A. Assignment 1. My Courses XI. How Does Personality Develop A. Teleology 1. Oriented toward a future goal, purpose B. Spirituality 1. Search for meaning—across cultures 2. Broadest sense—religion, faith 11 C. Individuation 1. Moving toward wholeness, harmony 2. Integrating all conscious and unconscious facts of personality 3. Unfolding one’s inherent and unique personality 4. Rarely completed D. Transcendence 1. Emerging deeper self or essence that unites person with all humans and universe E. Self 1. Influenced by self archetype 2. Center of personality—organizes 3. Uniting opposites XII. Personality Develops in Stages A. Progression 1. Forward movement of psychic energy/ libido B. Regression 1. Backward movement of psychic energy/ libido 2. Can be a time of creativity… free neglected areas of life C. Stages 1. Childish a Ego develops…age 4 b Distinguish between self and others: I—you 2 Puberty to young adult a Adapt to growing demands of reality b Focus on external, education, career, family c Conscious dominates 3 Middle age a Shifts from external to internal b Attempts to balance the unconscious with conscious; opposites c Individuation d Pointed toward midlife crisis XIII. Thinking Critically… A. Assumptions 12 B. Research 1. Case Study—clients 2. Visited cultures C. Personal Story D. Key Concepts 1. Structure of personality – mountains, islands… conscious, personal unconscious 2. Personality develops in stages 3. Principles of opposites 4. Archetypes 5. Personal development…individuation…teleology…self…transcendence … 13 3. KAREN HORNEY : SYCHOANALYTIC SOCIAL THEORY I. Psychodynamic Psychology A. Definition 1. Study how unconscious and early childhood experiences influence behavior II. Neurotic Needs and Trends A. Neaurotic Needs 1. Irrational defenses… become permanent part of personality B. Neurotic Trends 1. Attitudes toward self and others that express persons need 2. …further development and revision of needs
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