New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

PKG Lecture 10 Notes

by: Samantha Shea

PKG Lecture 10 Notes PKG 101

Samantha Shea

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover what was highlighted during class on Tuesday, October 11th.
Principles of Packaging
p. koning
Class Notes
Packaging, Lecture Notes
25 ?




Popular in Principles of Packaging

Popular in Packaging Science

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Shea on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PKG 101 at Michigan State University taught by p. koning in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Principles of Packaging in Packaging Science at Michigan State University.


Reviews for PKG Lecture 10 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/13/16
Lecture  10 Thursday,  October  13,  201612:45  PM Plastics  Packaging Plastics  Defined • Plastics  are  based  on  synthetic  resins  or  modified  polymers  of  natural  origin. • They  are  solid  in  the  finished  state,  but  can  be  molded  using  controlled  heat  and   pressure  at  relatively  low  temperatures,  compared  to  glass  and  metals. • Plastics  are  sub -­‐classified  in  to  two  categories 1. Thermoplastics:  materials  which  soften  when  heated  and  harden  again  when   cooled.  This  process  can  be  repeated  indefinitely.  Because  of  this  behavior,   thermoplastics  are  recyclable  to  some  extent. 2. Thermosets:  thermoset  materials  harden  when  heated  or,  in  some  cases,  when   they  are  treated  with  certain  chemicals.  After  the  initial  set,  thermoset   materials  no  longer  soften  when  heated.  They  are  not  recyclable  except  as  inert   fill  in  concrete  or  other  materials.   Plastic  History  and  Trends 1933-­‐ Polyethylene   • Other  polymer  development  followed • Waterproofing  electronic-­‐ s1930s • A  significant  early  application  was  the  use  of  polyethylene  to  waterproof  the   wires  and  other  components  in  RADAR,  SONAR,  and  similar  equipment  that  was   first  used  during  WWII. Applications  of  Plastics • Plastic  containers  have  replaced  many  metal,  glass,  paper,  and  wood  packages   that  were  formerly  used.   • The  U.S.  produces  more  plastic  than  steel,  aluminum,  and  copper  combined. Plastic  packaging • Packaging  is  the  largest  market  for  plastics The  Nature  of  Plastics • The  ability  of  plastics  to  be  shaped  is  an  important  property  which  results  from   their  molecular  structures. • Synthetic  polymers  are  nearly  always  considered  to  be  plastics Growth  of  Plastic  Packaging • The  growth  of  plastic  packaging  has  accelerated  rapidly  since  the  1970s,  largely   because  of  four  characteristics  of  plastics: 1. Low  density their  molecular  structures. • Synthetic  polymers  are  nearly  always  considered  to  be  plastics Growth  of  Plastic  Packaging • The  growth  of  plastic  packaging  has  accelerated  rapidly  since  the  1970s,  largely   because  of  four  characteristics  of  plastics: 1. Low  density 2. Formability 3. Strength  and  damage  resistance 4. Economics Characteristics  of  plastics 2. Formability:  easy  to  form  into  shapes 3. Strength  and  damage  resistance • Light  weight  but  strong.  High  strength  to  weight  ratio • Damage  resistance,  flexibility • Chemical  resistant • Relatively  inert  materials   • No  corrosion Raw  materials  for  plastic • Naphtha,  the  primary  raw  material • Natural  gas  is  the  second  most  common  raw  material • Bio  based  materials Small  Percentage  usage • Packaging  uses  a   fraction of  this  percentage Packaging  Plastics • Big  Six ○ Polyethylene  (PE) § LDPE § HDPE ○ Polypropylene  (PP) ○ Polyethylene  Terephthalate  (PET) ○ Polystyrene  (PS) ○ Polyvinyl  Chloride  (PVC) ○ Others (covered  in  advanced  PKG  courses) § Society  of  Plastic  Industry  (SPI)  Container  Coding  System #1  Polyethylene  Terephthalat -PET  (polyester) • Excellent  clarity/  transparen-­‐tsparkle  =  replacing  PVC  applications   ○ Clear  or  colored • Good  tensile/toughness/  tear  strength  =  strapping • Can  resist  internal  pressure  from  carbonation • All  soda  bottles  up  to  3  liters • "Fair"  gas  barrier • Metalized  PET  film  for  coffee  vacuum  packs • PREMIUM Soft  Drink  Bottling • Can  resist  internal  pressure  from  carbonation • All  soda  bottles  up  to  3  liters • "Fair"  gas  barrier • Metalized  PET  film  for  coffee  vacuum  packs • PREMIUM Soft  Drink  Bottling • Soft  drink  bottlers  switched  from  aluminum  and  glass  to  plastic  because  of  the   advantages  of  plastic ○ Weigh  less ○ Variety  of  shapes  and  sizes ○ Transparent  or  colored  (over  metal,  not  glass) Less  damage  and  breakage ○ ○ Most  local  curbside  collection  recycling  systems  accept  PET  containers  =   increasing  popularity • Reduced  shelf  life  of  beverage  products  in  plastic  containers ○ Shelf  life  of  carbonated  beverages  is  only  about  6  to  8  weeks  when   packaged  in  PET  compared  to  months  or  even  years  when  packaged  in   glass  or  aluminum  containers • Necessary  to  re -­‐structure  the  entire  warehousing,  distribution,  and  retail  system Polyethylene   • The  polyethylene  family  is  the  most  widely  used  type  of  plastics • #2-­‐ High  Density  Polyethylene -­‐  HDPE • #4-­‐ Low  Density  Polyethylene -­‐  LDPE #2  -­‐ High  Density  Polyethy-­  DPE • HDPE  may  be  clear  like  LDPE,  but  it  often  has  a  Translucent,  white,  milky   appearance • Biggest  use  is  as  plastic  jugs  or  milk,  fruit  juice,  and  water #3  -­‐ Polyvinyl  Chloride  -­‐PVC • Tough  film • Excellent  clarity-   sparkle • Non-­‐food:  e.g.  Shampoo  bottles • Thermoformed  blisters  and  clamshells • Food:  low  O2  barrier  =  film  for  red  meats,  cling  wrap • Negative  influences  =  almost  obsolete  in  US  for  bottling  food/beverage.  Losing   market  to  PET #4  Low  Density  PolyethyleneL  DPE • A  primary  application   -­‐ bags • Stretch  wrap  for  unitizing  loads #5  Polypropylene -­‐  PP • Less  dense  than  PE,  and  stiffer • Excellent  clarity  and  sparkle  like  PS • Clear  or  colored • High  temperature  tolerate  for  hol =  HOT • Examples #5  Polypropylene -­‐  PP • Less  dense  than  PE,  and  stiffer • Excellent  clarity  and  sparkle  like  PS • Clear  or  colored • High  temperature  tolerate  for  hol =  HOT • Examples ○ Over-­‐wraps ○ Closures  (plastic  caps) ○ Excellent  living  hinge  properties:  injection  molded  boxes,  containers  and   closures • Another  common  use  of  polypropylene  is  snack  food  packaging  such  as  pretzels   and  potato  chips.  Often  the  PP  in  those  applications  has  had  a  thin  layer  of   aluminum  added  to  improve  the  barrier.  We  refer  to  this  material  as  metalized   film  (specifically,  metalized  PP,  in  this  case) #6  Polystyrene-­‐  PS • Clear  food  service,  colored  or  opaque  cups  -­‐ PS • Foamed  (expanded)  cushion  material   -­‐ EPS ○ Molded  and  loose-­‐fill  cushioning • Crystal  clear  rigid  jewel  boxes,  cosmetics  -­‐ PS • Crystal  clear  film  -­‐PS • Superior  clarity  similar  to  PET  &  PP Environmental  concerns  about  EPS • EPS  has  also  been  a  target  of  certain  environmental  groups Society  of  Plastic  Industry  (SPI)  Container  Coding  System • Developed  to  help  states  recycling  efforts • Some  states  written  the  coding  system  into  law • Not  based  on  federal  law • Being  used  in  similar  form  in  other  countries The  Most  Common  Forming  Methods  for  Packaging  Plastics • Extrusion • Lamination-­‐extruded  sheet  or  film  (rigid  and  felxible) • Thermoforming-­‐   extruded  sheet • Injection  molding ○ Injection  blow  molding  (IBM) ○ Injection  Stretch  Blow  Molding  (ISBM) Extrusion • Basic  machine  that  is  used  in  the  beginning  of  the  process  of  all  plastic   formation • Heat  and  pressure • Mixes  and  melts  plastic • Forces  molten  plastic  out  through  die Silt ○ ○ Ring ○ Other  shapes • Heat  and  pressure • Mixes  and  melts  plastic • Forces  molten  plastic  out  through  die ○ Silt ○ Ring ○ Other  shapes Injection  Molding • Special  Extruder:  accumulates  a  "shot"  of  melted  plastic,  then  injects  into  the   mold • Mold  filled,  cooled  to  shape,  plug  pulled  out,  finished  object  pushed  out • 'Witness'  tiny  rough  point,  faint  circular  markings Plastic  Bottles • Characteristics  of  a  Bottle ○ Hollow  vessels ○ Manufactured  from  thermoplastic  material ○ Finish  that  has  a  smaller  diameter  than  the  body ○ Requires  a  blow  molding  process  where  air  pressure  is  used  with  a  mold   to  create  the  shape Blow  Molding  Process 1. Injection  Blow  Molding  (IBM) ○ Injection  Stretch  Blow  Molding  (ISBM) 2. Extrusion  Blow  Molding  (EBM) ○ Extrusion  blow  mol-­‐fill-­‐seal  process Injection  Blow  Molding • Injection  blow  molding  is  used  for  the  production  of  bottles  in  large  quantities • The  injection  blow  molding  process  produces  bottles  of  superior  visual  and   dimensional  quality  compared  to  extrusion  blow  molding • No  flash • When  injection  and  blowing  are  done  on  a  single  machine,  the  process  is   described  as  "one-­‐step" Injection  Blow  Molding  (IBM)    Process • Injection  -­‐ Preform • Blowing • Ejection Injection  Blow  Molding • More  precise  control  -­‐ good  for  items  with  tight  dimensions • No  scrap  (flash) • Little  limitation  of  polymer  materials  that  can  be  used • Better  distribution  of  material • No  commercially  successful  handles  (they  must  be  glued  on  in  a  second   operation) Injection  Stretch  Blow  Molding • Overview ○ Injection  stretch  blow  moldings  used  for  the  production  of  large  volume   • Better  distribution  of  material • No  commercially  successful  handles  (they  must  be  glued  on  in  a  second   operation) Injection  Stretch  Blow  Molding • Overview ○ Injection  stretch  blow  moldings  used  for  the  production  of  large  volume   containers.   ○ Preform  and  container  can  be  molded  at  different  times,  in  different   places • Materials ○ Polyethylene  -­‐ Terephthalate  PET Injection  Stretch  Blow  Molding  (ISBM) Typical  Product  Packages  Produced • Carbonated  and  soft  drink  bottles Injection  Stretch  Blow  Molding  Process • Injection • Molten  polymer  flows  into  the  injection  cavity  to  produce  the  desired  shape  of   the  PREFORM   • Ejection/Discharge Injection  Stretch  Blow  Molding  Process  cont. • Preheat  Preform • Stretching  and  Blowing  (biaxial  orientation  created) • Ejection Injection  Stretch  Blow  Molding  (ISBM)  Animation • Normal  plastic  bottles  have    uniaxial  orientations  (horizontally)  when  blown • To  get  biaxial  orientation,  it  needs  to  also  be  stretched  vertically • Results:  Biaxially  oriented  PET  bottles  perform  much  better Injection  Stretch  Blow  Molding  (ISBM) • Advantages ○ High  clarity ○ Improved  gas  barrier ○ Improved  stiffness ○ Permits  thinner  walls ○ Absence  of  any  trim  and  scrap • Container  and  its  Preform • Blow  molding  mark  on  the  container  bottom.  The  point  where  the  plastic   injected  into  the  mold  was  cut  off


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.