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Week 8 Notes (both classes!!!)

by: Cydney Tinsley

Week 8 Notes (both classes!!!) PSYC 1000

Cydney Tinsley
CU Denver
GPA 3.2

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About this Document

These notes cover the rest of sensation and perception, as well as the introduction to sleep and conciousness.
Introduction to Psychology
Alex Northcutt
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cydney Tinsley on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1000 at University of Colorado Denver taught by Alex Northcutt in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Colorado Denver.

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Date Created: 10/13/16
Cydney Tinsley Psychology Sensory and Perception Sensory and Perception 1. Meissner Corpuscle: Quick adaptation. Low threshold of activation. Tactile/touch. 2. Pacinian Corpuscle: Deep pressure. Quick adaptation. Low threshold of activation. 3. Ruffini Corpuscle: Tells you when your skin is stretching. Sensitive of pressure. Adapts slowly. Low threshold of activation. 4. Perception: the interpretation of the incoming information. 5. Parallel Processing: Our ability to incorporate different sensory info more or less at once. 6. Top-down Processing: Our interpretation of stimuli is influenced by something in your cognitive processing. Can be expectations, thoughts, past experiences, etc. 7. Bottom-up Processing: When we use the basic characteristics of the stimuli and interpret what it is based on that only. 8. Gestalt Principles: Principles that explain how we see parts and turn it into a whole. a. Proximity: Amount of space. Grouping things makes them more identifiable. i. Ex: b. Similarity: How we inadvertently group things that are alike. i. Ex: You see a row of white dots, followed by a row of black, instead of seeing columns of alternating white and black dots. c. Continuity: Perceiving things as continuous. i. Ex: You see a swoopy line and a straight line, instead of swoopy straight, swoopy straight, etc. d. Closure: Tendency to close gaps. i. Ex: e. Figure-Ground: When we inadvertently make something be the background and something else the foreground. Cydney Tinsley Psychology Sensory and Perception i. Ex: 9. Prosopagnosia: When you damage the part of your brain that perceives faces. Inability to recognize faces. 10.Depth Perception: Ability to perceive depth, size, and distance. Relies on binocular and monocular clues. Requires experience to develop. a. Monocular Clues: i. Relative Size: Larger things look closer. ii. Texture Gradient: The more detail we can see in a texture/pattern, the closer it seems. iii. Interposition: Things closer to you appear in front of things behind it. iv. Lineaer Perspective: When lines appear to converge in the distance. v. Height in a Plane: Objects lower on a plane seem closer. vi. Light and Shadow: The way light shines on an object, any resulting reflection or shadow gives us information on the object. vii. Relative Motion: If something is moving and something else isn’t, you gain info on how big, small, fast, etc. the object is. The quicker it changes, the closer it appears. b. Binocular Cues: i. Convergence: How much you have to move your eyes tells you how close the object is. Only good to a distance of ten meters. 11.Illusions a. The Moon Illusion: The moon on the horizion looks larger than the moon ‘up high’. b. The ‘Ames Room’ Illusion: A real wall is angled, but you see it as flat, so the object(s) in one spot appear larger than objects on the opposite side. c. The ‘Muller-Lyer’ Illusion: An angle coming towards you looks larger. d. The ‘Ponzo’ Illusion: When your brain assumes that the object closer to converging lines is bigger. e. The ‘Horizontal-Verticle’ Illusion: When a verticle line intersects the horizontal line, the horizontal line looks shorter. f. The ‘Ebbinghause-Titchner’ Illusion: When a large object is surrounded by smaller ones it looks bigger, while big objects surrounded by other big objects look smaller. 12.Subliminal Perception: Processing below your level of consciousness. a. James Vicary (1957) tested to see if Sublimial Perception exists and if it can affect you. However, it was found that his data was falsified. b. We now know that yes, it is real, but it won’t really affect you. c. Priming: When an idea is planted in your brain, it can slightly alter your thoughts but never your actions. For example, if someone flashed an ‘O’ when you were supposed to be naming fruits, you may be more inclined to say Orange. 13.Extra Sensory Processing (ESP): No evidence supports it’s existence. 14.Circadian Rythum: Your biological clock. Generally oriented to a twenty-four hour day or the seasons. Caused by the superchiasmatic nucleus of about Cydney Tinsley Psychology Sensory and Perception 20,000 neurons. Governs peak senses, peak temperature, peak mental alertness, etc. 15.Michel Siffre: A man who spent two months in a subterrainian glacier. When he left, he was off on the date by about a month. Later, he went into a cave for six months, completely absent of all light ques. After about 80 days his sanity started to crack. His circadian rhythm stayed pretty normal for around two and a half months. Then his cycles began to range from 18 hours to 52 hours. 16.Sleep deprivation: a. Causes: i. Increased accidents. ii. Suffering cognitive functions. iii. Descreased sex drive. iv. Decreased health. v. Increased risk of depression. vi. Changes in appetite and weight. vii. Interferences with muscle mass. viii. More likely to get hurt. ix. Death---mainly due to injury. 17.First Stage of Sleep a. Made up of waves. Waves become less frequent. i. Includes Hypnogogic Imagery: When you’re not asleep but not dreaming, and see images.


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