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Biology Notes Lecture Chapter 6

by: Adriana Proctor

Biology Notes Lecture Chapter 6 BIO-101-105

Marketplace > Chesapeake College > Science > BIO-101-105 > Biology Notes Lecture Chapter 6
Adriana Proctor
Chesapeake College
GPA 4.0

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These notes, which will be covered in the upcoming test, contains notes(as well as facts) from The Introduction to Metabolism. Various topics are covered throughout, as images and charts are added...
Fundamentals of Biology I
Doctor Hatkoff
Class Notes
metabolism, starch, monomers, Active Sites, emergent properties, metabolic pathways, anabolicpathways, kinetic energy, potentialenergy, heat, light, chemical, first law of thermodynamics, Thermodynamics, exergonic, e, endergonic, catalystic
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adriana Proctor on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO-101-105 at Chesapeake College taught by Doctor Hatkoff in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Biology I in Science at Chesapeake College.

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Date Created: 10/13/16
Biology Lecture Notes Chapter 6 The Energy of Life ● The living cell is a miniature chemical factory where thousands of reactions occur. ● The cell extracts energy and applies energy to perform work. An Organism’s Metabolism Transforms Matter and Energy ● Metabolism is the totality of an organism's chemical reactions. ● Metabolism is an ​emergent property​ of life that arises from interactions between molecules within the cell. Metabolic Pathway A metabolic pathway begins with a specific molecule and ends with a product. ● Each step is catalyzed by a specific enzyme. ● Catabolic pathways ​release energy​ by breaking down complex molecules into simpler compounds. ● One example of ​catabolism​ is cellular respiration. ● Anabolic pathways​ consume energy to build complex molecules from simpler ones. ● One example of ​ nabolic pathway is photosynthesis. Energy Kinetic Energy​ is energy associated with motion. Potential Energy ​is energy that that possesses because of its ​location or structure. Thermal energy ​is ​kinetic energy associated with random movement ​of atoms or molecules. ● Heat is thermal energy in transfer from one object to another. Light ​is another type of energy that can be harnessed to perform work. Chemical energy ​is potential energy available for release in a chemical reaction. If energy always equals “100” assign a value for kinetic and potential energy for “W”, “X”, “Y”, and “Z”. The First Law of Thermodynamics The law of conservation of energy clearly states that the total amount of energy of an isolated system is always at a constant. Energy can be transformed to one form to another, yet it can’t be created or destroyed. The Second Law of Thermodynamics The second law of thermodynamics states that the total deterioration of an isolated system always increases over time, or the remains constantly in ideal cases where the system is in a steady state or undergoing a reversible process. Q&A Starch is broken down into 100 glucose monomers. Is the total amount of energy in the cell higher, lower or the same? Low or the same because it is being transformed. 100 glucose monomers are transformed into 1 starch polymer. How has the cell abided by the second law of thermodynamics? Releases heat. Define and exergonic reaction. Give one example of one. Refers to a reaction where energy is released. Define an endergonic reaction. Give one example of one. A reaction that requires energy to be driven. Enzymes Speed up Metabolic Reactions by Lowering Energy Barriers A catalyst is a chemical agent that speeds up a reaction without being consumed by the reaction. A enzyme is a catalytic protein. The Activation Energy Barrier Every chemical reaction between molecules involves bond breaking and bond forming. The initial energy needed to start a chemical reaction is called ​activation energy​. Enzymes(not adding energy), speed up reactions that would occur anyways, by lowering the activation energy. Substrate Specificity of Enzymes ● Enzymes are very specific for the reactions they catalyze. ● The molecule that an enzyme acts on is called the enzyme's ​substrate. ● The ​active site​ is the region on the enzyme where the substrate binds.


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