BIO 253, Week 6 Notes
BIO 253, Week 6 Notes Bio-253-06
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Popular in Human Anatomy and Physiology I, Biology
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Talia Ali on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio-253-06 at Jackson College taught by Proefessor Brandon Cooley in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology in Human Anatomy and Physiology I, Biology at Jackson College.
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Date Created: 10/13/16
Jackson College Fall Semester 2016 Professor: Mr. Brandon Cooley The Skeletal System Anatomy and Physiology 1 ___ Notes Introduction: Functions of the Bones Bones are the structural support system of the body. It protects the vital organs of the body and it also helps the body move, magnifying the work force of the muscles. Bones are primarily made of Ca++, Calcium, and the bone is also vital for hematopoiesis, or the production of blood. Bones also hold triglycerides which can be used for energy in the yellow bone marrow, and bones also hold homeostasis for minerals. Introduction: Structure of Long Bones ○ Diaphysis - Shaft that is made up of dense layers of compact bone with a layer of spongy bone inside the medullary cavity. ○ Epiphysis - The enlargements at the end of the long bone that give muscles leverage. These enlargements are made up of spongy bone and covered with a layer of compact bone. ○ Metaphysis - This connects the epiphysis and diaphysis to one another. This is also where a child’s growth plate would be located. ○ Articular Cartilage - This cartilage covers active joint surfaces and stops the joints from wearing and tearing. It is composed of hyaline cartilage. ○ Periosteum - This is a capsule composed of dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the bone and covers everything except for articular surfaces, which is any surface of a skeletal formation that makes normal direct contact with another part of the skeletal structure that connects to a synovial joint. There are two layers of the periosteum: ■ Fibrous Layer - The periosteum receives strength from this it’s outer layer. ■ Osteogenic Layer - Made up of bone forming cells. ○ Medullary Cavity (Marrow Cavity) - The hollowed out area of the bone that’s filled with yellow bone marrow. ○ Bone Marrow ■ Red Bone Marrow - Produces red blood cells. ■ Yellow Bone Marrow - Made up of 97% connective tissue. ○ Endosteum - This is a membrane that edges the inside of the marrow cavity. It is attached to the inner surface of the spongy bone. Introduction: Histology of Bone Tissue There are four cell types that exist in bone tissue: ● Osteogenic Cells - Divide to create osteoblasts. Another term for osteogenic cells are stem cells. ● Osteoblasts - Create actual bone and builds calcium crystals. Mitosis is not needed for this procedure. ● Osteocytes - Mature cells that keep up healthy adult bone. No mitosis, and no matrix. ● Osteoclasts - Break down bone and calcium crystals. ○ Resorption - Breaking down the bone matrix. Introduction: Bone Matrix The bone matrix has an abundance of mineral salts as ground substances that includes hydroxyapatite, calcium carbonate, magnesium, fluoride, potassium and sulfate. It is also made up of collagen which gives the matrix its strength, and is also calcified, but calcification won’t happen unless there’s collagen involved. Introduction: Microscopic Bone Tissue ● Compact Bone - Made up of osteons and has a central canal. ○ Central Canal - Goes through the core of the osteon. ○ Concentric Lamella - Rings of hard calcium that surround each other. ○ Lacunae - Inside each lacunae is an osteocyte. ○ Canaliculi - Has extracellular fluid that moves debris and waste. ○ Perforating Canals - Supplies blood vessels to the bone and they penetrate from the surface of the bone to the exterior. ● Spongy Bone - Has no form of osteons. ○ Contains trabeculae which are irregular arrangements of thin bone plates. Introduction: Ossification Ossification is the physiology of bone formation and includes calcification and mineralization. Ossification consists of growing calcium deposits that fuse together which creates bone. Flat bones have two layers of membrane and ossification occurs in between. After this, the outer membrane becomes the periosteum and the inner membrane can become either the periosteum or the dura mater inside of the skull. Intracartilaginous ossification is when the hyaline cartilage of the bone is dissolved and replaced with actual bone. ● Articular Cartilage - The remains of growth places around the bone that cover the epiphysis. ● Epiphyseal Plate - This is where hyaline cartilage is placed while the growth in the bone remains possible. Introduction: Physiology of Bone Growth Bones stop growing in length officially at 25 years of age. Metaphysis happens when the bone officially can’t grow in length anymore. Human growth hormone causes bone to grow as well as hyaline cartilage. Vitamin D helps the body absorb calcium which bones need. The thickness and diameter of the bone during growth is determined by the matrix that is placed on the outside of the osteogenic layer of the periosteum. Introduction: Bones and Homeostasis Remodeling, which is stimulated by exercise, means that the bone is constantly being dissolved and replaced minimally throughout a person’s life. The piezoelectric effect occurs when pressure is placed on a bone and crystal induced electricity occurs, remodeling occurs, which increases bone strength. The minerals needed for homeostasis are: ● Calcium, Potassium, Fluoride, Magnesium and Manganese. The vitamins needed for homeostasis are: ● D, C, K, A and B12 The hormones needed for hormones are: ● IGFs, hGH, T3 and T4 Introduction: Fracture and Repair of Bones Types of Fractures that Occur in Bone ● Closed Reduction - Bone hasn’t pierced through the skin. ● Compound Reduction - Bone pierces through the skin. ● Greenstick - This fracture only happens in children, and occurs when one side of the bone is broken and the other side bends. Steps in Fracture Repair ● Fracture Hematoma (Reactive Phase) - Blood pushes out bone fragments and a blood clot forms so that cells can start healing the bone. ● Fibrocartilage Callus Formation (Reparative Phrase) - Fibroblasts create collagen fibers and progenitor cells create chondroblasts which in turn create fibrocartilage. ● Boney Callus Formation (Reparative Phrase) - Osteoprogenitor cells transform into osteoblasts which create spongy bone and connects areas of healthy and damaged bone. ● Remodeling Phase - Compact bone replaces spongy bone where needed. Introduction: Bone’s Role in Calcium Homeostasis Calcium is important because it forms the structure of the bone, coagulates the blood, encourages neuromuscular responsiveness of the bone and cellular permeability of the bone as well. The hormone involved in calcium homeostasis is the parathyroid hormone. This hormone is used to increase blood calcium. It also quickens the dissolving of the calcium out of the skeleton, increases the absorbency of calcium from the GI tract, and helps the kidneys retain calcium. Calcitonin lowers calcium levels in the blood and deposits calcium ions back into the bone. Introduction: Homeostatic Imbalances These imbalances included osteoporosis, which happens when bones become porous, and rickets, or osteomalacia, which is the failure of bones to calcify. Words to know would be osteoarthritis which is the damage to a joint, and osteosarcoma, the cancer of the bone
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