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Anth 1010 week 6 notes

by: Justin Larremore

Anth 1010 week 6 notes Anth 1010

Justin Larremore
GPA 3.5

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About this Document

Covers Neolithic revolution, End of Upper Paleolithic and Food Production
Intro to Anthropology
Jamie Kathleen Johnson
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Justin Larremore on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anth 1010 at University of North Texas taught by Jamie Kathleen Johnson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Intro to Anthropology in Anthropology at University of North Texas.


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Date Created: 10/13/16
Anth 1010 week 6 notes Homo Sapiens Species of human found throughout the world Emergence of modern Homo sapiens and the Neolithic Revolution By 35,000ya, H. sapiens had spread throughout the range of all other homo species and eventually became only form found 3 Separate theories to explain the phenomenon of wide spread transition Multiregional Model States different populations of H. sapiens are descended from H. erectus Consistent w/fossil record and seems to explain anatomical differences Replacement Model States one subpopulation evolved in Africa and then radiated outwards  H. erectus and Neanderthals were out competed and died out Dminisi site challenges this theory, model not consistent w/fossil record Hybridization Model Interbreeding between Neanderthals and H. sapiens Supported by DNA evidence  Also includes Denisovan population group End of the Upper Paleolithic 30,000­10,000BP­ Holocene era Glaciers retreat, oceans rise, climate warms Dense, mixed forests­ boreal and deciduous trees Pleistocene megafauna (giant mammals) go extinct  Humans move from big game hunting to broad spectrum collecting Caves and rock shelters yield increasingly concentrated settlements Adaptive resources include specialized foraging techniques and tool technologies Bone and ivory working, knapping tools, etc.  Musical instruments also found in caves Homo sapien Culture Entoptic phenomenon in cave paintings Patterns appear in various regions across the world Representations of non­human entities, pseudo­humans and symbols Epipaleolithic (SW Asia), Mesolithic (Europe), and Archaic (Americas) Tool Technologies Transition to broad spectrum collecting varied depending on environment  Permanent settlements Nomadic lifestyles Epipaleolithic, Mesolithic and Archaic tool technologies are smaller and more specialized Microliths­ tiny flakes w/sharp edges Harpoons, fish hooks, knife blades, sickles Bow and Arrow becomes very important to Mesolithic and Archaic peoples Ground stones used for preparing foods Ornamentation on fine woven baskets indicative of ethnic group Pottery becomes increasingly more refined Epipaleolithic in SW Asia Natufian culture in Fertile Crescent 10,200­12,500BP (end of Upper Paleolithic) Israel, Jordan, Syria, Iraq, Turkey Number of different environmental zones Exploitation of variety of plants and animals Mortars and pestles, ground­stone bowls, sharp flint blades, sickles Mesolithic in Europe Variety of subsistence strategies reflect adaptation to changing local conditions N. European sites (N. Germany) show extensive evidence of reindeer kills France, Britain and Ireland show reliance upon greater diversity of animals  Hunting camps are very common sites Carr Star site­ 21 Antler skulls, maybe headdresses or camouflage Archaic in North America Warmer and drier conditions Late Archaic 6,800BP Koster site in Mississippi river valley  26 different human occupations Earliest homes and cemeteries in north America Wide range of domesticated animals  Middle Archaic 6,000BP Evidence of social status appears in record Burial Questions What evidence do archaeologists have for upright or vertical burials? How can researchers ascertain social status from burial? Peopling of the New World Beringia Model­ “ice­free corridor” from Asia to America 12,000BP Maritime Model­ sea coast of Beringia, island­hopping 18­16,000BP Solutrean Model­ from Europe via North Atlantic over water 20,000BP Neolithic Revolution “New stone age” Domestication of plants and animals for human consumption/use 13­10,000ya Move from hunting herd animals to broad spectrum collecting and cultivation Stone­based technologies are refined and task­specific With subsistence shift, larger populations could be supported Moving to sedentary lifestyle, complex social structures are created, social stratification is introduced for the first time Pros and Cons of Food production Pros  Cultivation allows for more stable supply and sedentarism  May lead to decreased mortality rates Cons  Sedentary lifestyles cause substantial increases in amount of work  Reliance upon grain leads to decline in nutrition Origins of Food Production Manipulation of wild foods Grains and fruit­bearing plants were adapted by artificial selection for human consumption and cultivation Storage devices Granaries allow for stockpiling of large food resources Specialization of Pottery Pottery=evidence for sedentary lifestyle Allows for cooking and storing food Origins of Animal Domestication Domestication produced anatomical changes Diminishment of horns in cattle and goats More milk production from cattle and goats Reduction in jaw and tooth size in pigs and dogs More selective in butchering and breeding Domestication of dogs Dogs are unique among mammals b/c they can follow a human hand point Very trainable Why Produce Food? Foragers are “walking encyclopedias” of plants, they would know certain aspects and how to manipulate them for advantage Farming takes a lot of work and patience while hunting and gathering does not Oasis Theory­ major climate change at end of Pleistocene, drying trend w/oasis around, theory that farming just occurred by chance, no evidence to support Readiness Hypothesis­ after thousands of years of familiarity w/environment, people just started farming Population Models­ as populations grew, people had to settle and this led to necessary exploitation of environment Farming led to population boom OR Population led to farming


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