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SPHG 620 Week 8: Obesity

by: Victoria Snow

SPHG 620 Week 8: Obesity 620

Victoria Snow

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This week we heard from Dr. Lindsey Smith Taillee about the epidemic of obesity. We discussed the causes of obesity on an individual level as well as society/community level. We talked about what k...
Exploring Public Health
Karin Yeatts
Class Notes
Public, health, Obesity
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Snow on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 620 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by Karin Yeatts in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Exploring Public Health in School of Public Health at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.

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Date Created: 10/13/16
SPHG 620 Week 8 ObesityEpidemic Dr. LindseySmith Taillee 10/13/16 Why is obesityoccurring? There is a mismatch: bio which was evolved over the millennia clashes withmodern technology Sweet preference- cheap caloric sweeteners, food processing benefits Thirst and hunger/satiety mechanisms not linked caloric beverage solutions (we don’t register the calories in drinks likewe do infood) People’s activity(at work, leisure,etc) have decreased-we have washer and dryers, etc. Social-Ecological model-individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, policy Who is responsiblefor the obesity epidemic? Individual or society? Probably both Learned food preference demand food environment  income, time  food purchasing  dietary intake  obesity and NCDs 1. Policy actions that enable the environment for health preference learning 2. Policy actions that overcome barriers to the expression of healthy preferences. 3. Policy actions that encourage re-assessmentofunhealthy preferences at point-of- purchase (likeputting candy at the checkout aisle) 4. Foods-systems response A. Provide enabling environment a. Provide an enabling environment for healthy preference learning i. Multiple influences (parents, peers,food availability,cultures) B. Overcome barriers to expression a. Remove barriers to accessing,purchasing, preparing, and consuming a healthy diet b. Cost,access togrocery store, time, physical resources, information, social support, skills,mobility C. Encourage re-assessment a. Difficultto overcome unhealthy preferences b. Long term preferences for health must compete with short term preferences for gratification c. Choicearchitecture atpoint of purchase i. Price ii. Availability iii. Presentation iv. Likegoing through a buffet, put healthy foods first v. Rename things,hide the unhealthy things vi. Smaller bowls/plates vii. Healthy express line D. Stimulate food systems response a. Policies intended to affectconsumer choice can stimulateresponses in the food system b. Ex: mandatory labelling oftrans fat E. Opportunities a. Scholars promote a return to whole foods, but there is min evidence b. What can be done within our existing food system? c. Key elements of food environment i. Economic tools-prices, subsidies,tradecontrols ii. Labeling iii. Marketing controls iv. Alter choices in selectinstitutions d. Taxes i. Elements- needs to be largeenough to drive change 1. Healthy substitutes (that areless expensive) a. Likein Mexico, lower access tocleanwater, so taxon soda would not be ideal 2. Issues a. Is price changevisible> b. How to identify what is taxed/untaxed c. Industry response- portion sizeshifts d. Are they regressive 3. Subsidies- a. Overcome barriers to meeting healthy preferences ii. Around the globe- 1. Mexico- 10% soda, 8% junk food 2. Us,Poland, Italy,etc. 3. Mexico- has high prevalence of obesity and diabetes a. Two leading causes ofmortality- ischemic heart disease and diabetes b. 1 pesoper liter taxon sugar-sweetened beverage c. 8% junk food/non-essential i. defined as >275 kcal/100 g ii. fruit loops-taxed iii. icecream- not taxed iv. cakemix- not ready to eat, sonot taxed v. popcorn- not ready to eat,but saltysnack,sotaxed vi. granola bar- taxed bc greater calorie vii. chocolate milk- have lots of added sugar,but no dairy products are taxed 4. South Africa- a. Financial incentive leads to healthier food purchases 5. US- targeted subsidies a. WIC-provide low income wine to buy healthy food iii. Nutrition labeling-front of packageoptions 1. Example- “smart choices”- a. Eating fruit loops is better than eating doughnuts, so it gets a check b. In the public health school- label with “50min” and “250 cal” soitputs it in a way that people understand c. Labeling has not influenced consumer behavior, but ithas changed the way that companies produce their food, to avoid those warning/bad labels d. Look-alike snacks servedin school to meet the standards, but atthe stores,they are marketed the sameand kids will choose them outside of school too. e. “blackmarket” kids sell chocolate/chips at school and make money iv. Marketing- 1. TV and movies 2. Celebrity endorsements 3. Persuasivepackaging 4. Social media- viral marketing a. Ex: Selena Gomez- drinking coke 5. Adver games 6. Schools- fundraisers, materials,sports events 7. Marketing towards Hispanic andblack children disproportionately 8. In Mexico- did a “cartel” with the characters from food (tony the tiger, Ronald McDonald, etc.)


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