ADVS 1110 - Livestock Production Systems
ADVS 1110 - Livestock Production Systems ADVS 1110
Utah State University
Popular in Introduction to Animal Science
Popular in Animal Science
This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Makenna Osborne on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ADVS 1110 at Utah State University taught by Lyle McNeal in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Animal Science in Animal Science at Utah State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/16
LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION SYSTEMS *need to know commercial beef cattle, commercial sheep (both white face & black face), farrow-to-finish swine operation Why these three? Most common in Utah, Nevada, Wyoming, Idaho (intermountain area) *need to memorize top 2 states, and where Utah is Beef Cattle - Over 3 quarters of the cash receipts for meat animal marketing comes from beef; this is because cows are so big = more dollars - Cash receipt: money you get paid for the product - Average U.S. beef cattle herd is around 100 head - We can now export to Japan (Japan wants 1300-1400lb cows) - Over 40 different breeds + crosses + composites - Composites: 2, 3, or 4 different breeds to make a breed The breed produced may be selected on many different criteria: - Disease & parasite resistance - Calving ease - Heat tolerance - Mothering ability - Feed efficiency - Body size - Temperament - Coat color - Production - Meat marbling British Breeds: bos taurus - Angus, Hereford, Shorthorn - First breeds brought to the US - Represent the largest segment of the beef industry Continental European breeds: bos taurus - Limousine, Simmental, Charolais, Chianina - Desired for their size and ability to grow Zebu breeds: bos indicus - Brahma, Brangus (3/8ths Brahman, 5/8ths Angus), Simbrah (3/8 Brahman, th 5/8ths Simmental), Santa Gertrudis, Beefmaster SECTORS OF THE BEEF INDUSTRY Purebred Operations - Registered bull and cow have registered calf - Heifers weaned and grown out as breeding heifers - Top 20% of heifers kept, others sold to commercial producers - Bull calves weaned out and sold commercial range bull, sold to purebred producers - Purpose is to produce seed stock cattle (both bulls & cows) - Purebred cattle are used as the sires and dams of the calves that can also be utilized for improving the “commercial cattle” sectors - In 2012, beefusa.org put out stats that the highest producer of seed stock (purebred) was Express Ranchers in OK, and Gardener Ranch - Growing purebred stock allows breeders to concentrate on improving and enhance he advantages of a particular breed Cow-Calf Operations (commercial) - Inflection point: when milk production starts decreasing in a cow - Every 5 years you’ll replace your herd, by keeping top 20% of heifers - Purebred bull (1500lbs) X grade bow (950lbs) have a calf (90lbs) - Heifer wean and grow out, top 20% kept as breeders. Rest are sold out as stockers Sell as stockers: 450-600lbs Stockers: 600-750lbs Warm-up feedlot: 600-800lbs Feedlot-finish: 950lbs+ - Bull castrate all, steers Wean-sell as stocker/feeder calves: 450-600lbs Stockers: (600-750lbs) Warm-up feedlot: (600-850lbs) Feedlot-finish: (1050lbs+) - 10-15% caloric intake increases @ feedlots; mostly still forage - 90% grain and 10% roughage @ feedlot-finish - When weaning, helps to get rumen forage from cow and give it to the calf because it speeds up weaning process - Top 2 states: Texas & Nebraska; Utah is at 36 - most calves produced are crossbreeds from purebred sires and generally grade dames of various genetic backgrounds and/or different breeds - much of this industry is located in the southern/western states; HOWEVER cow-calf operations can be found all over the states - beefusa.org says top cow-calf operations is Deseret Land & Livestock in FL & J.R. Simplot in ID - in the West it is common to leave cows on open-range (not fenced in until calving), through weaning time when all stock is rounded up for the calves to be sold and shipped to stocker operations or feedlots - mothering instinct and calving ease are desirable - cows rely heavily on sense of smell - calves are usually sold at weaning weight (450-600lbs) - buyers prefer calves that have been castrated, vaccinated, and are in good body condition Stocker-Feeder Operations (commercial) - provide a less-expensive alternative between the weaning and finishing of the animals - generally weaned calves are placed on pasture or improved range (high-fiber diet which is less expensive, but also harder to digest) - some stocker operations also feed a ration to allow for skeletal and muscular growth - before calves are sold to a feedlot for finishing THEY MUST BE PHYSICALLY MATURE Feedlot Operations (commercial) - many feedlot operators also have stocker operations - feedlot operations are the final phase before processing for slaughter - grain increases, forage/roughage decreases - feedlot cattle are fed a high concentrate grain ration, which is designed to put the proper amount of growth and finish on the cattle - 90% grain - Feedlot producers want sufficient finish or over to allow the animals to meet the USDA Quality grades from at least low choice and higher (marbling, maturity, fine textured, bright color) - Range in size from feeding 100-150,000 - beefusa.org JBS is top feedlot with 940,000 cattle, Cactus Feeders with 527,000 cattle - small operations are usually in the South and large operations are in the West - when animals reach their proper degree of finish, they are marketed to the packer - 18-24 months of age weighing 800-1500lbs (varies based on breed and body type) - beefusa.org top packing operation was Cargill with 10 plants and Tyson Foods with 8 plants THE PORK INDUSTRY 1. Iowa th 2. North Carolina (Utah is 15 ) Yorkshire pig is the most common breed in this industry If the breed name ends in “shire;” their ears are erect/not floppy At one time in this country, most people raised hogs on their farms; they required very little space and fit well as sideline enterprises Gestation length of a sow is 3 months, 3 weeks, 3 days and farrow up to 2-2.5 times a year Polyestrous: many estrus cycles within a year - Pigs are NOT seasonal polyestrous - Sheep and horses are seasonally polyestrous Time required to build up a herd of hogs is short when compared to most other livestock; mainly due to short generation interval Hogs were once raised to produce fat which was rendered into lard for family and commercial cooking needs Cob rollers/chuffy pigs: pigs used to produce lard - Lard was used in cooking (pre-petroleum based products) - Used for lubricants, cosmetics, and soap too - Once vegetable cooking oils became available, and human health concerns became known, lard production diminished Since 1950 hogs have been produced mainly for meat Per capita consumption of pork has decreased, from 50lbs-46.6lbs Producers have developed hogs that are much leaner than their ancestors The China is the world’s top pork producer; the U.S. is one of the top. Utah is 15 in th the US Pork production and consumption rank second to beef in the US distributed throughout the country Jewish people and Muslims do not eat pork; it’s considered an unclean animal because people used to feed pigs waste Feed efficiency: pigs will gain 1lb for every 3.75-5lbs for feed consumed Purebred Operations - Registered boars X registered sows have registered piglets - Boar pigs are weaned, grown out, top 5-10% kept, performance tested and sold as purebred boars - Gilts are weaned and grown out, top 15-20% are kept, rest are sold to purebred breeders - Popular breeds are categorized as mother or sire breeds (sire breeds are known for carcass) Yorkshire or Landrace or Chester White are maternal breeds Duroc and Hampshires are sire breeds - Most commercial hogs are crosses of sire and dam breeds Farrow-Finish (commercial) - Registered boars X grade sows/gilts piglet (4-5lbs) - Pregnant sows are sometimes put in restricting pens to prevent injury to piglets; laws are being made against this - Sows cannot be bred while lactating - Sometimes piglet’s middle teeth are clipped off because they chew the sow’s teats off - Piglets get bored and chew on other piglet’s tails and ears; give them toys and clean dirt to help prevent this - Gilt weaned and grown out (25-60lbs) finished (125-240lbs) slaughter or top 15-25% kept - Boar pig castrated barrow weaned and grown out (25-60lbs) grown to finish (125-240lbs) slaughter - Weaned around 3-6 weeks, but depends on weight of piglet to determine weaning - Weaning weight is around 45-55lbs - After weaning, pig socialization needs to be monitored - When finishing diet is high in protein, around 125lbs lots of carbs are added to diet - Slaughter weight depends on breed and type, so there isn’t a set weight Growing – Finishing - Growing-finishing is taking feeder pigs to market weight - Feeder pigs can range in weight from 35-70lbs - Finished hog can weigh from 235-270lbs, dependent upon breed - Many producers use semi-confinement or total confinement systems - Pigs are weaned out and grouped with others of the same age and size - Animals are kept in pens rather than running loose - AI: all in AO: all out - rotate pens and sanitized before new groups come in - hogs are marketed at about 20 weeks of age, 220-260lbs - on average, pigs will gain 1lbs per 3.75-5lbs per lb of feed consumed (feed conversion ratio/feed efficiency) - some self-feeders just dump food on the floor - best way to feed is in holding containers - feed has lots of concentrates, with lots of calories - purchase feeder pigs (barrows & gilts 30-75lbs) growing to finish (125lbs- 240lbs) slaughter Biosecurity - swine if managed like most today, in confinement systems, are very susceptible to diseases - most total confinement operations required the caretakers to “shower in” and “shower out” - employees and visitors (if allowed) must shower and put clothes on provided by the producer - this helps to maintain biosecurity which reduces the potential transmission of diseases THE SHEEP INDUSTRY Lanolin/wool wax: grease made from Black face crossed on white range ewes: “smutt” faced or “brockle faced” Predators are a major problem facing produces; coyotes, feral dogs, bears, and wolves kill many sheep every year Some producers report losing 29% of their lamb crop to predators per year The Western US is where the highest losses due to predation occur (almost 50% of all losses) This averages to about a 16-million-dollar loss, and industry output loss (wool sweater companies can’t sell as many sweaters without sheep, it also affects employment rates) TOP WOOL PRODUCERS 1. California 2. Wyoming Utah is #4 Be familiar with antibiotic resistance Wool is one of the oldest known fibers used for clothing; use is recorded by ancient Greeks, Romans, Egyptians, and Hebrews In the late 1800’s cotton production began to take over, then WWII changed everything to synthetic fibers like polyester As we enter the 21 century, due to the price of fossil fuels, natural and renewable fibers are beginning to increase demand TRENDS IN SOCIETY AFFECT DEMAND FOR MEATS, FIBERS, PRODUCTS Wool fibers are made up of two distinct layers of cells - Cuticle: outside - Cortex: inside “dyed in the wool” Different diameters for wool grade When wool is cleaned oil, dirt, and vegetable matter are removed from it The oil is called lanolin Lanolin is used in many soaps and lotions, skin softeners, cosmetics, etc. Mohair is the fiber fleece from Angora goats; the fabric made from it resists wrinkles 100% pure new wool = woolmark “gold standard” 50-99% new wool = woolmark blend 30-49% new wool = wool blend THE GOAT INDUSTRY Mohair Production 1. Texas 2. Arizona Utah is 5th Dairy Goat Production 1. Wisconsin 2. California Utah has no data Meat Goat Production 1. Texas 2. Tennessee Utah has no data Cashmere Goat Production No data provided, no top states TEXAS American goat industry has expanded significantly over the last decade Most expansion has occurred in the American West Goat industry is comprised of diverse uses and/or purposes which are as follows: milk/fiber (angora, mohair, cashmere), meat The Dairy Industry 1. California 2. Idaho/Wisconsin Utah is 23 rd Dairy productions need to be close to their consumers because of the cost to transport liquids Dairy production is an important part of American agriculture Milk and other dairy products remain a staple in the diets of most Americans In 2012 there were 51,481 dairy farms in the US In 1992 there were 131,509 dairy farms Why the drop? Small dairies got bought out by large companies A 61% reduction in number of US dairy farms between 1992 and 2012 Despite the number of facilities, the cow population hasn’t really changed - 1992: 9.6 million cows - 2012: 9.2 million cows - 4% reduction - During the 1980/90’s, production shifted from Midwest and Great Lakes regions to the WEST Most dairies milk 3 times a day, some only do 2 milking per day Robotic dairies; cows have zero contact with humans Production continues to increase in Idaho, New Mexico, and California (switching from SoCal to central) The tri-state region of Indiana, Michigan, and Ohio appears to be maintaining cow numbers while production increases Modern dairy production is diverse with systems ranging from cows housed indoors year-round to cows maintained on pasture nearly year round Milk production per cow has risen from an average of 4,000lbs/year in the 1940’s to 21,000lbs/year Today’s milk production equals 2,500gal of milk per year, or 8 gal/day, or 128 glasses/day Expansion to larger herd sizes has allowed producers to increase the efficiency of production and capitalize on economies However, this transition has resulted in environmental challenges with larger numbers of cattle and more manure concentrated in smaller areas CAFO’s: concentrated animal feeding operations - When you put more animals on less acreage, there are lots of issues = manure - Lagoons, digesters, irrigation help take care of manure - Cannot be close to riparian area (water shed areas) - Manure management plans - Odor control Major Impacts on Dairy Production - Land availability - Labor availability - Milk quality regulations - Cost of technology - Increasing milk prices due to droughts (2012-2015) - Environmental issues Calcium is one of the biggest deficiencies in humans Mastitis is an infection of the mammary gland; it can get so bad it can shut down production, Mastitis is very serious with pigs MMA: mastitis metritis agalactia - Starts in the teat canal: mastitis - Metritus: uterine infection - Agalactia: no milk Poultry Industry Top States in Egg Production 1. Iowa 2. Ohio Utah is 25 th Top States in Broiler Production 1. Georgia 2. Arkansas Utah is 31 st TURKEY INDUSTRY 1. North Carolina 2. Missouri th Utah is 11 The commercial poultry industry includes 3 sectors: 1. Eggs/laying operations 2. Broilers/meat bird operation 3. Turkey/meat bird operation Foundation breeders hatcheryman commercial producers wholesaler retailer consumer Vertically integrated: the entire process from top to bottom is owned by the same company Foundation breeder and hatcheryman - generally associated in a franchise arrangement - Provides breeding stock for the hatchery “supply flocks” - Maintains “supply flocks” or “parent flocks” - They produce the commercial chicks for the hatcheryman, who in turn sells them to the Commercial Producers Males going into the parent flocks are usually different breeds than the females, so the commercial chicks are a cross - Strain crosses (inbred, but not as bad as inbred hybrids) - Crossbreds (have the most genetic diversity; very effective for production) - Inbred hybrids (keep breeding) Foundation breeders label chicks for sale with a “copyrighted trade name” to prevent infringement by competitors Since the “pure line strain” stock is never sold, the foundation breeder maintains complete control of the breeding stock Most franchises sell more than one patented brand of chicks One of the top competitors in the country is Tyson Farms & ConAgra THE HORSE INDUSTRY 1. Texas 2. California Utah is 30 th The horse was one of the first sources of power Been used for work, transportation, and war throughout recorded history Numbers of horses and mules in the US grew until the 1920’s, when the car and tractor caused a sharp decline in their numbers Numbers continued to decline until the 1960’s; since then numbers have increased drastically Over 4.8 billion dollars, one of the largest animal industries Light Horses - Weigh 900-1400 lbs - Gaited saddle horses - Stock horses - Driving horses - Race horses Draft Horses - Weigh 1400+ - Numbers are increasing due to interest in driving & pulling contests - Budweiser has helped increase visibility Ponies - Weigh 500-900lbs - Defined by height, less than 14.2hh (less than 54-56 inches) There are more registered QH’s than any other breed in the US Arabians rank second in the US Development of equine assisted therapy; autism, Asperger’s, PTSD/veterans, healing from serious injuries, blindness, aging, elderly seniors, other disabilities and disorders Horses have, and always will, play an important part of our American heritage MULES The mule has its own place in the history of America They’ve been around since the Revolutionary War; bred to work on farms and plantations No statistics are available on US mule population Mules were originally particularly popular in the South because they could work in humid weather, then they became more popular in the West due to their multiple uses (packing, hunting, rough terrain) Mules are a true hybrid, cross between male donkey and female horse Mules are sterile and cannot breed Mules are more surefooted in rocky or hilly terrain They are used to take tourists through the Grand Canyon, High Sierras, and Rocky Mountain region Mules will seldom overheat OR overeat as horses do; mules rarely colic US Marine Corp uses robotic mules
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