Ch. 5 Complete and Ch. 7 Sikhism
Ch. 5 Complete and Ch. 7 Sikhism REL 101
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Crump on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to REL 101 at University of Mississippi taught by Mary F Thurlkill in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Intro to Religion in Religion at University of Mississippi.
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Date Created: 10/13/16
10/4/16 Ch. 5: Buddhism Pgs. 171-186 Last Class: 3 marks of existence o Impermanence o Suffering o Anatman – no self Sangha – one of the “refuges,” the monastic Buddhist community o Non violence o celbasy Theravada Buddhism – the oldest branch of Buddhism; southeast Asian roots; arhat – enlightened figures; individual enlightenment Mahayana Buddhism – bodhisattvas – help others reach enlightenment; east Asian roots; many forms of it: Pure Land and Zen are the ones we talked about Vajrayana Buddhism Often called Tibetan Buddhism “Diamond” or “lightening vehicle” – because they are trying to reach enlightenment much, much faster (than Theravadas believe is possible) Bodhisattvas + Tantras – Tantras are the secret sacred texts Deity yoga – visualizing oneself as the Buddha or a bodhisattva to become as enlightened as that deity o Also use certain postures like Hinduism Mantras – repetitive chanting, often of a particular phrase o Example: om mani padme hum Om is a sacred sound as it was in Hinduism Mani is joy Padme Hum o Video of Dali Lama Knowledge is very important and unlike Hinduism, everyone is expected to do it Transformation from impure habits/thoughts to a purer mind and body Mantras help to transform your mind and quiet your body Mandalas, sand paintings – sometimes viewed as a map of the universe 10/4/16 o Sand paintings are very intricate and take a very long time to make but are destroyed later to maintain the idea of impermanence Prayer wheels – have prayers or mantras written on them; by spinning the wheel you can non-verbally “say” a ton of prayers much faster than you’d be able to actually say them o Prayer flags – same concept, but the wind blows the prayers out Lamas – spiritual leaders Dali Lama – “sea of wisdom;” believe that the new Dali lama is the reincarnation of the former one o May be chosen by the former Dali lama dreaming of his location, by following the cremation smoke of the previous Dali lama, and one other way but I missed it o 14 Dali Lama a leader of a school of philosophy that stuck around Chinese takeover of Tibet Tibetan refugees History of Buddhism in India Buddha’s life Asoka, 3 century BCE – king who converted to Buddhism and made it part of the laws of his kingdom as well as financially supporting Buddhism Mahayana, 1 -2st ndcentury CE Decline 7 - 13 century o First wave of decline was due to Hindu revivals o The second wave was the Muslim conquest and Mughal empire Buddhism in Modern India Many pilgrimage sites in India that commemorate certain points of the Buddha’s life Tibetan Buddhists have migrated Dalit Buddhists – converted to Buddhism because they were oppressed in their previous societies Buddhism in America 1800’s – gold rush and railroads brought Asian immigrants over for work World’s parliament of religions in Chicago, 1893 o Teaching Americans about other religions; Gurus for Americans Helped Americans understand o Mysteries of the exotic east 10/4/16 1790 Naturalization Act – free white people were the only ones who could be citizens 1882 Chinese Exclusion act – exactly what is sounds like 1924 Asian exclusion act – literal 1965 Immigration Act – dropped the previous acts, allowing Asian immigrants in, thus the religions spread and grew in America WWII Japanese Internment – the US put Japanese in internment camps, took a toll on Buddhism population in America o Buddhist churches of America – Buddhism was seen as suspicious because of the Japanese so they made it look like a church to be less threatening to Americans/Christians 10/6/16 Chapter 7: Sikhism Pgs: 217-241 Last Class: Vajrayana Buddhism o Tools to reach enlightenment: Mantras – reciting phrases Mandalas – sand paintings or regular painting Prayer wheels – spin them to “say” prayers faster; using the wind o Dali Lama Can be chosen by following the cremation smoke of the former Dali Lama to the baby that was born close to the same time that the former Dali Lama died Can be chosen by the former Dali Lama may dream of the baby or have a vision of him May also be chosen by the Oracle lake – a special lake that may give a sign as to where the baby may be Buddhism in India and the U.S. o Sacred sites in India o Discrimination in the U.S restricted the number of Buddhists we’ve had in the country historically Early Sikhism Hindu-Muslim context Guru Nanak, 15 -16 century Pakistan area, but part of India at the time Raised and surrounded by Hindus but Islam is taking over at this time too Went into the river and didn’t come out for 3 days; he says there are no Hindus and no Muslims: we are all united in god Draws ideas from both Hinduism and Islam Sikh beliefs Started by Guru Nanak Samara and karma o Mukti - liberation as union with god, and liberation from samsara 10/6/16 Rejected polytheism and images of the divine (Islamic influence); monotheistic (from Buddhism) Rejected castes o Started the communal kitchen i.e. eating with the untouchables, which is taboo among Hinduism o Spiritual and social equality 10 (human) Gurus th th Guru Gobind Singh (17 – 18 century) Tenth Guru Baisakhi/Vaisakhi – the holiday of Guru Gobind Singh asking for volunteers to sacrifice themselves in the name of their religion, but doesn’t actually kill them – the 5 volunteers became the Khalsa Khalsa – “The Pure Ones;” the baptized/initiated Sikhs Panth – the general community of Sikhs Says there will be no more human gurus o The guru from that point on is the Adi Granth = Guru Granth (i.e. the eleventh guru possible test question) Mul mantra – the first couple of lines of the Adi Granth Sikhism views god as never taking a human form – kind of a shot at Christiantity, this is said in the Mul Mantra th Adi Granth – text the contains writings of Gurus, complied by the 5 guru Always at the front of the gurudwara Sikh Practices The 5 K’s o Kesh – uncut hair, you are a creation of god and you shouldn’t change anything about it o Kangha – a small comb, represents being well-groomed and well-presented o Kirpan – a small sword o Kara – a steel bracelet, a sign of commitment to Sikhism o Kachera – shorts, a willingness to fight for one’s faith ** for the test just no the English translation** Turban – a symbol of Sikh, symbol of keeping oneself clean and well- kept; symbolizing modesty before god as well Naming Ceremony – Naam Karan First letter of hymn 10/6/16 Singh "lion" for boys and Kaur “princess” for girls Want to be distinguishable in society as Sikhs Amrit Ceremony Baptism/initiation into the Khalsa Amrit – “immortalizing fluid,” sugar water that you drink, gets sprinkled on one’s head that represents a joining of the community More Sikh Practices No alcohol, tobacco (or really any drugs) o They corrupt the body and mind from devotion Bhakti – devotion to god Gurudwara – house of the Guru; where the Adi Granth is kept, where any ceremonies or whroship happens th Sikh Golden Temple – built by the 5 guru, rumored that Guru Nanak visited the lake that it sits on and found it very peaceful