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Ch. 5 Complete and Ch. 7 Sikhism

by: Jessica Crump

Ch. 5 Complete and Ch. 7 Sikhism REL 101

Marketplace > University of Mississippi > Religion > REL 101 > Ch 5 Complete and Ch 7 Sikhism
Jessica Crump
GPA 3.87

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About this Document

These are my lecture notes for week 7 (10/4 and 10/6). They complete ch. 5 on Buddhism and cover ch. 7 on Sikhism entirely.
Intro to Religion
Mary F Thurlkill
Class Notes
Religious Studies
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Crump on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to REL 101 at University of Mississippi taught by Mary F Thurlkill in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Intro to Religion in Religion at University of Mississippi.


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Date Created: 10/13/16
10/4/16 Ch. 5: Buddhism Pgs. 171-186 Last Class:  3 marks of existence o Impermanence o Suffering o Anatman – no self  Sangha – one of the “refuges,” the monastic Buddhist community o Non violence o celbasy  Theravada Buddhism – the oldest branch of Buddhism; southeast Asian roots; arhat – enlightened figures; individual enlightenment  Mahayana Buddhism – bodhisattvas – help others reach enlightenment; east Asian roots; many forms of it: Pure Land and Zen are the ones we talked about Vajrayana Buddhism  Often called Tibetan Buddhism  “Diamond” or “lightening vehicle” – because they are trying to reach enlightenment much, much faster (than Theravadas believe is possible)  Bodhisattvas + Tantras – Tantras are the secret sacred texts  Deity yoga – visualizing oneself as the Buddha or a bodhisattva to become as enlightened as that deity o Also use certain postures like Hinduism  Mantras – repetitive chanting, often of a particular phrase o Example: om mani padme hum  Om is a sacred sound as it was in Hinduism  Mani is joy  Padme  Hum o Video of Dali Lama  Knowledge is very important and unlike Hinduism, everyone is expected to do it  Transformation from impure habits/thoughts to a purer mind and body  Mantras help to transform your mind and quiet your body  Mandalas, sand paintings – sometimes viewed as a map of the universe 10/4/16 o Sand paintings are very intricate and take a very long time to make but are destroyed later to maintain the idea of impermanence  Prayer wheels – have prayers or mantras written on them; by spinning the wheel you can non-verbally “say” a ton of prayers much faster than you’d be able to actually say them o Prayer flags – same concept, but the wind blows the prayers out  Lamas – spiritual leaders  Dali Lama – “sea of wisdom;” believe that the new Dali lama is the reincarnation of the former one o May be chosen by the former Dali lama dreaming of his location, by following the cremation smoke of the previous Dali lama, and one other way but I missed it o 14 Dali Lama  a leader of a school of philosophy that stuck around  Chinese takeover of Tibet  Tibetan refugees History of Buddhism in India  Buddha’s life  Asoka, 3 century BCE – king who converted to Buddhism and made it part of the laws of his kingdom as well as financially supporting Buddhism  Mahayana, 1 -2st ndcentury CE  Decline 7 - 13 century o First wave of decline was due to Hindu revivals o The second wave was the Muslim conquest and Mughal empire Buddhism in Modern India  Many pilgrimage sites in India that commemorate certain points of the Buddha’s life  Tibetan Buddhists have migrated  Dalit Buddhists – converted to Buddhism because they were oppressed in their previous societies Buddhism in America  1800’s – gold rush and railroads brought Asian immigrants over for work  World’s parliament of religions in Chicago, 1893 o Teaching Americans about other religions; Gurus for Americans  Helped Americans understand o Mysteries of the exotic east 10/4/16  1790 Naturalization Act – free white people were the only ones who could be citizens  1882 Chinese Exclusion act – exactly what is sounds like  1924 Asian exclusion act – literal  1965 Immigration Act – dropped the previous acts, allowing Asian immigrants in, thus the religions spread and grew in America  WWII Japanese Internment – the US put Japanese in internment camps, took a toll on Buddhism population in America o Buddhist churches of America – Buddhism was seen as suspicious because of the Japanese so they made it look like a church to be less threatening to Americans/Christians 10/6/16 Chapter 7: Sikhism Pgs: 217-241 Last Class:  Vajrayana Buddhism o Tools to reach enlightenment:  Mantras – reciting phrases  Mandalas – sand paintings or regular painting  Prayer wheels – spin them to “say” prayers faster; using the wind o Dali Lama  Can be chosen by following the cremation smoke of the former Dali Lama to the baby that was born close to the same time that the former Dali Lama died  Can be chosen by the former Dali Lama may dream of the baby or have a vision of him  May also be chosen by the Oracle lake – a special lake that may give a sign as to where the baby may be  Buddhism in India and the U.S. o Sacred sites in India o Discrimination in the U.S restricted the number of Buddhists we’ve had in the country historically Early Sikhism  Hindu-Muslim context  Guru Nanak, 15 -16 century  Pakistan area, but part of India at the time  Raised and surrounded by Hindus but Islam is taking over at this time too  Went into the river and didn’t come out for 3 days; he says there are no Hindus and no Muslims: we are all united in god  Draws ideas from both Hinduism and Islam Sikh beliefs  Started by Guru Nanak  Samara and karma o Mukti - liberation as union with god, and liberation from samsara 10/6/16  Rejected polytheism and images of the divine (Islamic influence); monotheistic (from Buddhism)  Rejected castes o Started the communal kitchen i.e. eating with the untouchables, which is taboo among Hinduism o Spiritual and social equality  10 (human) Gurus th th Guru Gobind Singh (17 – 18 century)  Tenth Guru  Baisakhi/Vaisakhi – the holiday of Guru Gobind Singh asking for volunteers to sacrifice themselves in the name of their religion, but doesn’t actually kill them – the 5 volunteers became the Khalsa  Khalsa – “The Pure Ones;” the baptized/initiated Sikhs  Panth – the general community of Sikhs  Says there will be no more human gurus o The guru from that point on is the Adi Granth = Guru Granth (i.e. the eleventh guru  possible test question)  Mul mantra – the first couple of lines of the Adi Granth  Sikhism views god as never taking a human form – kind of a shot at Christiantity, this is said in the Mul Mantra th Adi Granth – text the contains writings of Gurus, complied by the 5 guru  Always at the front of the gurudwara Sikh Practices  The 5 K’s o Kesh – uncut hair, you are a creation of god and you shouldn’t change anything about it o Kangha – a small comb, represents being well-groomed and well-presented o Kirpan – a small sword o Kara – a steel bracelet, a sign of commitment to Sikhism o Kachera – shorts, a willingness to fight for one’s faith ** for the test just no the English translation**  Turban – a symbol of Sikh, symbol of keeping oneself clean and well- kept; symbolizing modesty before god as well Naming Ceremony – Naam Karan  First letter of hymn 10/6/16  Singh "lion" for boys and Kaur “princess” for girls  Want to be distinguishable in society as Sikhs Amrit Ceremony  Baptism/initiation into the Khalsa  Amrit – “immortalizing fluid,” sugar water that you drink, gets sprinkled on one’s head that represents a joining of the community More Sikh Practices  No alcohol, tobacco (or really any drugs) o They corrupt the body and mind from devotion  Bhakti – devotion to god Gurudwara – house of the Guru; where the Adi Granth is kept, where any ceremonies or whroship happens th Sikh Golden Temple – built by the 5 guru, rumored that Guru Nanak visited the lake that it sits on and found it very peaceful


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