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Psych 102, week 6 notes

by: Rebecca Goldman

Psych 102, week 6 notes PSYC 102

Marketplace > Towson University > Psychology (PSYC) > PSYC 102 > Psych 102 week 6 notes
Rebecca Goldman

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About this Document

These notes cover sleep and classical conditioning involving learning.
Honors Introduction to Psychology
Amy L. Bennet
Class Notes
classicalconditioning, sleep, psych, honorspsych
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rebecca Goldman on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 102 at Towson University taught by Amy L. Bennet in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Honors Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Towson University.


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Date Created: 10/13/16
IV. Consciousness­a person’s subjective experience of the world and the mind: what they are thinking  and experiencing  Occurs when awake and during vivid dreams A. Levels of Consciousness Minimal Consciousness  – current awareness ­ Low­level sensory awareness and responsiveness Full Consciousness Know and are able to report/state mental state for what they are feeling or seeing Self­consciousness Attention is drawn to self as an object Example: when you are presenting in front of class and are very aware of yourself When you look in the mirror Unconscious Influential but normally inaccessible processes Freud’s view Repressed memories, deepest instincts and desires Modern view Mental processes that give rise to a person’s thoughts, emotions, and behaviors Priming, subliminal messages Altered States of Consciousness Experience differs from normal subjective experience when awake Examples: Sleep, Hypnosis, Drugs B. Sleep Studied in sleep labs Using EEG (electroencephalogram) Records electrical activity in the brain Brain activity changes during sleep Stages of Sleep Stages 1 and 2 Light sleep Small, high frequency waves Stages 3 and 4 Deep sleep Large, low frequency waves (brain resting) REM (rapid eye movement) Paralyzed  Brain waves and body similar to awake Functions of Sleep Adaptive/necessary All vertebrates sleep/rest Slow wave (deep sleep)  Restores brain’s energy Cognitive activity increases slow wave sleep­ cognitive activity uses a lot of brain energy REM Brain makes up REM when sleep deprived Necessary for memory consolidation Spend more time in REM sleep after learning Babies spend more time in REM than adults because they are learning so much  Effects of Sleep Deprivation Fatigue, inattention, irritability, memory problems, make and overlook mistakes, accident prone  (25% of accidents),   Micro­sleep (fall asleep without knowing it) Sleep Disorders Insomnia  inadequate sleep, most people get symptoms­ fewer diagnosed better treated with behavior changes rather than drugs Narcolepsy  Sleep attacks (spontaneously falls asleep) Sleep paralysis (wake up momentarily paralyzed) Hypnagogic hallucinations (nightmares while awake, about to fall asleep)  Treated with drugs Sleep apnea  Stop breathing during sleep Treated with surgery or sleep mask REM behavior disorder  act out dreams Problems with slow­wave sleep Sleep walking, bed wetting, night terrors (person just screams with no nightmare) Theories of Dreaming Wish fulfillment – Freud, dreams window to unconscious desires, content is symbolic, expressing things in unconscious you can’t address in conscious mind (too awful to acknowledge) ­ Hard to scientifically test Problems solving – solve problems, analyze information, etc. ­ Scientist figured out how the molecule benzene looked like (where carbons attach) ­ Hard to scientifically test Activation synthesis – frontal lobe tells a story about random activation in the pons (Hobson &  McCarley 1977) ­ Frontal lobe tries to make sense of the random activation in the pons ­ Doesn’t rule out wish fulfillment or problem solving theories Circadian Rhythms Daily rhythms (last ~24 hours) Produced by SCN (suprachiasmatic nucleus) in hypothalamus  Only purpose is to produce the internal clock (circadian rhythm) Set by the sun Can reset circadian rhythm in other time zones if you spend time outside (because of the sun) Difficult for blind people­ they have to try hard to have a routine to maintain a circadian rhythm Review Questions At which level of conscious memories are stored? REM What is an EEG? Records electrical activity in the brain and brain activity changes during sleep Used in sleep studies Which stages of sleep have large, low frequency brain waves? Stages 3 and 4 Deep sleep Large, low frequency waves (brain resting) How long is a typical sleep cycle? 90 minutes Which brain area works as an internal clock? SCN What is the function of REM sleep? Necessary for memory consolidation Spend more time in REM sleep after learning Babies spend more time in REM than adults because they are learning so much Which theory of dreaming says that dreams are just the result of random neurons firing? Activation synthesis V. Learning A relatively permanent change in behavior or knowledge brought about by experience Learning does NOT include Instincts, temporary states (being drunk), physical changes (surgery), normal maturation  (baby stops sucking on things as they get older without being taught) A. Classical Conditioning If a neutral stimulus consistently precedes a stimulus that elicits a response, the neutral stimulus  alone will eventually elicit a response Gives you an ability to know what is going to happen next Pavlov’s dogs: when bell rang, dogs knew food would show up so they would salivate when bell  rang Unconditioned stimulus – elicits reflexive response (no learning had to occur for this  response) Unconditioned response – reflexive response (no learning had to occur) Conditioned stimulus – originally neutral stimulus that is paired with US (learning took  place) Example: Pavlov’s bell Conditioned responses – new response to CS (learning took place) Example: Salivating  Real life example:  People are originally scared of thunder, once they realize that lightning comes before  thunder­then people brace themselves when they see lightning  Unconditioned stimulus­negative experience with snakes  Unconditioned Response­fear  Controlled stimulus­ snakes  Controlled response­ fear of snakes Preparedness Predisposition to be conditioned in certain ways Examples: biologically already have fear of heights, spiders, snakes Conditioned taste aversion Eat something, get sick and never want to eat that food again Unconditioned stimulus­ sickness/flu Unconditioned response­ nausea Conditioned stimulus­ food Conditioned response­ Disgust/Nausea towards food eaten before getting sick Violates some original assumptions about classical conditioning because of timing Drug Cravings Unconditioned Stimulus­ drug Unconditioned Response­ physiological change Conditioned stimulus­triggers (locations, people, paraphernalia, etc.) Conditioned responses­ physiological changes which cause craving Extinction  Gradual disappearance of the CR Present the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus Used to treat phobias Exposure therapy Present what they fear without any harm happening Example: show you heights without you falling Systematic Desensitization Gradually go from seeing picture of spider to holding the spider Reconditioning (reacquisition) Relearning of a conditioned response Faster than first time Stimulus Generalization A conditioned response is elicited by stimuli similar to the original CS Example: Little Albert was scared of anything white and fuzzy­all similar Stimulus Discrimination Experience a conditioned response to a specific stimulus, but not similar stimuli. Higher Order Conditioning Conditioned stimulus functions as an unconditioned stimulus Example: dog gets excited about person hanging up the phone because he would take her out  after. Then she got excited about hearing him say good bye and the hanging up of the phone became the  unconditioned stimulus. Then she got excited about how he would say “Okay” before saying good bye,  hanging up the phone, and taking her out for a walk.  Review Question 1. You would expect that people would only release insulin when eating, but we learn to release  insulin in response to the sight and smell of food (even in response to ordering at a restaurant).  What are the US, UR, CS, and CR in this case? US­food UR­releasing insulin CS­being in the restaurant CR­releasing insulin 2.  How do you extinguish a conditioned response? Exposure therapy and Systematic Desensitization


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