BIOL 102 Ch. 34 The Origin and Evolution of Vertebrates
BIOL 102 Ch. 34 The Origin and Evolution of Vertebrates BIOL 102 - E01
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Zach Notetaker on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 102 - E01 at University of South Carolina taught by Thomas J Reeves (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Biological Principles II in Biological Sciences at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 10/13/16
BIOL 102 Ch. 34 Lecture Notes: The Origin and Evolution of Vertebrates • Animals call vertebrates get name from series of bones that make up the backb ne o Gave rise to modern amphibians, reptiles, and mammal o More than 57,000 species of vertebrates, including largest animals ever to live on Earth • Chordates (phylum Chordata) are bilaterian animals that belong to the clade of animals known as Deuterostomia o Comprise all vertebrates and two groups of invertebra es • Derived Characters of Chordates o All share set of derived charact rs § Some species have some of these traits only during embryonic development § 4 Key characters: • Notochord: o Longitudinal, flexible rod b/w digestive tube and nerve cord o Provides skeletal support thru most of length of a chor ate o More complex, jointed skeleton develops, adult retains only remnants of embryonic notochord • Dorsal, hollow nerve cord o Nerve cord of chordate embryo develops from plate of ectoderm that rolls into a tube dorsal to notoc ord o Nerve cord develops into central nervous system: brain and spinal cor • Pharyngeal, slits or cle ts o Grooves in pharynx called pharyngeal clefts develop into slits that open to the outside of the ody o Functions of pharyngeal slits: § Suspension-feeding structures in many invertebrate chordates § Gas exchange b/w vertebrates § Develop into parts of the ear, head, and neck in tetrapods • Muscular, post-anal tail o Chordates have tail posterior to anus o Many species tail is greatly reduced during embryonic development o Tail contains skeletal elements and muscles o Provides propelling force in many aquatic species o Lancelets § Names for bladelike shape § Marine suspension feeder that retain characteristics of chordate body plan as adult • Early Chordate Evolution: o Ancestral chordates may have resembled lancelets o Same Hox genes that organize vertebrate brain are expressed in lancelets simple nerve cord ti o Sequencing of tunicate genome indicates that… 2 § 3
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