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BSB Issues 150, Week 5

by: Wendy Liu

BSB Issues 150, Week 5 01:119:150

Wendy Liu
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

Covers ethics and biological basis of the ethics of embryological stem cell research
Biology, Society, and Biomedical Issues
Anthony Uzwiak
Class Notes
Biology, sociology, medical sociology
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Wendy Liu on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 01:119:150 at Rutgers University taught by Anthony Uzwiak in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 85 views. For similar materials see Biology, Society, and Biomedical Issues in Biological Sciences at Rutgers University.

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Date Created: 10/13/16
Week 5: Embryonic Stem Cells 10 October 2016, 13 October 2016 Biology, Society, & Biomedical Issues Professor Uzwiak Wendy Liu Polymer – large molecule made of many subunits Monomer – building block of a polymer DNA is the polymer made of nucleotide monomers Exons – expressed: genes  ~28,000 genes in humans o Most are evolutionarily conserved in all life o Small subset unique to humans  Each gene codes for a protein o Proteins serve as structure or carry other functions Introns – interfering: not expressed  Control  Regulate DNA itself  Other unknown functions Protein – polymer Amino acid – monomer of proteins  20 diff amino acids  Codon – 3 nucleotides coding for a specific nucleic acid Discrete genes – code for a single trait; determines 1 characteristic  Uncommon Quantitative/polygenetic genes – determined by more than 1 gene  More than 1 gene: determinants of the characteristic expressed o Sequence – order genes are expressed in o Quantity – freq of gene expression o Epigenetics – environmental context Types of Stem Cells  Embryonic stem cells – grow in the lab from cells found in the early embryo  Tissue stem cells – multipotent cells within the (adult) body o Ex: skin, blood, etc.  Induced pluripotent stem cells – reprogrammed stem cells; use lab techniques to turn adult specialized cells back to pluripotency Origin of embryonic stem cells  Blastocyst – very early embryo; ~100 cells in 2 regions o Inner cell mass – develop into organism  Multiply + differentiate into some pluripotent cell populations, mostly multipotent cell populations o Trophoblast (ortrophectoderm) – develop into placenta  Isolating inner cell mass – harvest embryonic stem cells o Cell maturation and specialization that normally takes place stops o Embryonic stem (ES) cells – undifferentiated cells replicated from ^above^ cells; resemble the cells of the inner mass  ES cells can proliferate and differentiate Using ES cells for science  Modify ES cells  Return modified ES cells to inner cell mass  Allow development o Mixture of normal and ES cells o Chimera – combinatory organism of DNA from 2 diff. genetic lineages; single organism w/ cells from different zygotes  Systematically alter the genetic makeup of the ES cells and study effect on organism Triploblastic – 1 layer of pluripotent cells becomes 3 layers of multipotent germ cells 3 germ layers:  Endoderm = inside: inner lining of body  Mesoderm = middle: everything else  Ectoderm = outside: outside surface of body, nervous system Tissue Stem Cells  Mesenchyme – embryological tissue that forms all connective tissue o Developed from mesoderm o Multipotent: can only form connective tissue o Found in bone marrow o Blood, tendons, ligaments, adipose, cartilage, bone o Blood and skin cells – stem cells needed to replace cell populations in adult  Bone marrow transplants  Blood diseases commonly affect stem cells  Donate bone marrow: become future blood cells  Growing epidermis but not skin - no dermal tissue or dermal appendages o Haematopoietic stem cells – derives from mesenchyme tissue  Normally in bone marrow  Give rise to all blood cells  RBCs, WBCs, platelets  Limbral cells of the eye – forms tissues of cornea Induced pluripotent cells  Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)  Cell fusion  Treatment with extract of pluripotent cells  Stable expression of defined factors Ethical barrier of ES research: can’t do research on cells after implantation b/c they are human cells w/ human potential Stages of the Conceptus:  Pre-embryo – before implantation, before blastocyst o Research is legally permitted o Not implanted = not part of humanity o All events before implantation can take place outside of human body o Not dependent on human  Embryo – implantation occurs  Fetus – placenta forms ~40 week gestation period  After 20 weeks – survival from premature birth is possible only w/ human intervention… o …& lots of $$$ o Incompletely developed respiratory system: can’t breathe by itself  After 27-28 weeks – survival from premature birth is possible w/o human intervention o Beginning of third trimester o Developed respiratory system: baby can breathe by itself


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