BSB Issues 150, Week 5
BSB Issues 150, Week 5 01:119:150
Popular in Biology, Society, and Biomedical Issues
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Biological Sciences
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Wendy Liu on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 01:119:150 at Rutgers University taught by Anthony Uzwiak in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 85 views. For similar materials see Biology, Society, and Biomedical Issues in Biological Sciences at Rutgers University.
Reviews for BSB Issues 150, Week 5
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/13/16
Week 5: Embryonic Stem Cells 10 October 2016, 13 October 2016 Biology, Society, & Biomedical Issues Professor Uzwiak Wendy Liu Polymer – large molecule made of many subunits Monomer – building block of a polymer DNA is the polymer made of nucleotide monomers Exons – expressed: genes ~28,000 genes in humans o Most are evolutionarily conserved in all life o Small subset unique to humans Each gene codes for a protein o Proteins serve as structure or carry other functions Introns – interfering: not expressed Control Regulate DNA itself Other unknown functions Protein – polymer Amino acid – monomer of proteins 20 diff amino acids Codon – 3 nucleotides coding for a specific nucleic acid Discrete genes – code for a single trait; determines 1 characteristic Uncommon Quantitative/polygenetic genes – determined by more than 1 gene More than 1 gene: determinants of the characteristic expressed o Sequence – order genes are expressed in o Quantity – freq of gene expression o Epigenetics – environmental context Types of Stem Cells Embryonic stem cells – grow in the lab from cells found in the early embryo Tissue stem cells – multipotent cells within the (adult) body o Ex: skin, blood, etc. Induced pluripotent stem cells – reprogrammed stem cells; use lab techniques to turn adult specialized cells back to pluripotency Origin of embryonic stem cells Blastocyst – very early embryo; ~100 cells in 2 regions o Inner cell mass – develop into organism Multiply + differentiate into some pluripotent cell populations, mostly multipotent cell populations o Trophoblast (ortrophectoderm) – develop into placenta Isolating inner cell mass – harvest embryonic stem cells o Cell maturation and specialization that normally takes place stops o Embryonic stem (ES) cells – undifferentiated cells replicated from ^above^ cells; resemble the cells of the inner mass ES cells can proliferate and differentiate Using ES cells for science Modify ES cells Return modified ES cells to inner cell mass Allow development o Mixture of normal and ES cells o Chimera – combinatory organism of DNA from 2 diff. genetic lineages; single organism w/ cells from different zygotes Systematically alter the genetic makeup of the ES cells and study effect on organism Triploblastic – 1 layer of pluripotent cells becomes 3 layers of multipotent germ cells 3 germ layers: Endoderm = inside: inner lining of body Mesoderm = middle: everything else Ectoderm = outside: outside surface of body, nervous system Tissue Stem Cells Mesenchyme – embryological tissue that forms all connective tissue o Developed from mesoderm o Multipotent: can only form connective tissue o Found in bone marrow o Blood, tendons, ligaments, adipose, cartilage, bone o Blood and skin cells – stem cells needed to replace cell populations in adult Bone marrow transplants Blood diseases commonly affect stem cells Donate bone marrow: become future blood cells Growing epidermis but not skin - no dermal tissue or dermal appendages o Haematopoietic stem cells – derives from mesenchyme tissue Normally in bone marrow Give rise to all blood cells RBCs, WBCs, platelets Limbral cells of the eye – forms tissues of cornea Induced pluripotent cells Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) Cell fusion Treatment with extract of pluripotent cells Stable expression of defined factors Ethical barrier of ES research: can’t do research on cells after implantation b/c they are human cells w/ human potential Stages of the Conceptus: Pre-embryo – before implantation, before blastocyst o Research is legally permitted o Not implanted = not part of humanity o All events before implantation can take place outside of human body o Not dependent on human Embryo – implantation occurs Fetus – placenta forms ~40 week gestation period After 20 weeks – survival from premature birth is possible only w/ human intervention… o …& lots of $$$ o Incompletely developed respiratory system: can’t breathe by itself After 27-28 weeks – survival from premature birth is possible w/o human intervention o Beginning of third trimester o Developed respiratory system: baby can breathe by itself
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'