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Art 221 Week 7 Day 14

by: Cassidy_SWK2018

Art 221 Week 7 Day 14 Art 221

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Roman Late Empire and Constantinian Age
Honors Art History Survey I
Dr. Beth Mulvaney
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassidy_SWK2018 on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Art 221 at Meredith College taught by Dr. Beth Mulvaney in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Honors Art History Survey I in Art at Meredith College.


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Date Created: 10/13/16
ART 221 10-13-16 Practice comparison The art on the left is from the Altar of Zeus. It is typical of Greek in that it uses mythological characters to address historical fact. The art on the right is the memorial to Emperor Trajan(?). It is typical of Roman Empire art in that it addresses historical fact very accurately, depicting real events from wars fought by Trajan. This building is the Roman Pantheon, dated 118-128 CE. It uses 20 ft. thick walls at the bottom of the building to act as buttresses for the heavy dome. As the walls go up, they are thinner and lighter concrete was used by mixing hollow clay pots or pumice for an aggregate instead of stone. The receding vaults in the dome also allow for less weight on the structure, as does the oculus. A collimated courtyard delays seeing the dome to allow for an instant wow-factor. The light through the oculus moves around the dome to mimic the movement of the heavens. Exam 1. Responsible for a. Etruscan b. 1 -4 stiles (roman) c. Republican d. Empire (early and high) e. Late empire f. Age of Constantine Late Roman Empire and the age of Constantine 1. Commodus is end of high empire, signals shift a. Eccentric, probably certifiably insane b. Thought he was Hercules c. No administrative capability d. Late empire sees economic and political decline i. Barbarians/migratory tribes begin to attack the boarders 2. Battle of the romans and barbarians, Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus, Rome, ca. 250-260 CE a. Chaotic and overcrowded i. Horror Vacui b. Figures are stacked vertically up the front c. More uniform relief d. Looks uncomfortable, like he’s not securely seated e. Lack of canonical proportions i. hand is bigger than head, they wanted you to see him urging the troops on ii. designed to draw attention to him as leader iii. signals shift 3. late vs. high empire*** a. high is more open b. late squeezes out nature c. high is a story that can be followed d. high is highly classicizing style with canonical proportions e. high has a central figure, Orestes f. late has no real focus 4. portrait of Septimius Severus and family ca. 200 CE a. Caracalla, the child with a face, murdered his brother i. He had an extreme streak of paranoia ii. He had all images of his brother obviously erased (that’s why the other kid doesn’t have a face) 5. Bust of Caracalla, ca. 211-217 CE a. So paranoid he murdered his wife and father-in-law b. Bust looks angry c. Shows upper torso i. Nakedness is emphasized by mantle and belt ii. Looks like a wrestler, very powerful and strong 1. This presentation is meant to represent a god d. Short curls started a new trend 6. baths of Caracalla, 212-216 CE a. covered 50 acres b. started by Septimius Severus c. gift to the roman people d. largest completed project in late period e. swimming pool could accommodate 1600 bathers at once f. either side is a gymnasium g. lectures available h. brothels around the edges i. vaults are 140 ft. high j. made of concrete faced with sheer marble panels and stucco inlaid with gold k. mosaics covered floors 7. Diocletian a. To create unity, broke down empire into halves i. Ruled by tetrarchy (2 people) 1. An Augustus and a Caesar a. Like presidents and vice presidents 8. The four tetrarchs, ca. 300 CE a. Made of purple marble from Egypt b. TYPICAL of late empire i. Disregard of canonical proportion ii. Emphasized united front of tetrarchs c. Bearded fellow may be Augustus, clean-faced guy may be Caesar i. Identical pairs d. Diocletian retires 298-306 CE 9. Palace of Diocletian at split, ca. 298-306 CE a. Thick walls, recognizes need for defense b. Huge watchtowers c. Laid out according to a roman city plan, north/south/east/west axis d. Represents a fusion of military engineering and roman imperial building 10. Peristyle court, palace of Diocletian at Split, ca. 298-306 CE (gable of glorification) a. To address crowd, Diocletian would stand under arch b. Pediment broken by arch i. Shows roman willingness to break Greek rules 11. Age of Constantine a. 313—Edict of Milan i. Christianity officially recognized b. 325—Council of Nicaea i. Christianity became state religion of Rome c. Constantine was battling a rival for emperor i. Had a dream with a cross that said “in this sign you shall conquer” ii. Ordered it to be painted on all his soldiers’ shields iii. Went to battle and was victorious, so attributed victory to Christian God 12. Arch of Constantine, Rome 312-315 CE a. Resources are scant at this point b. Adjacent to coliseum c. Incorporated spolia (spoils)– older statues and reliefs reused in Late Roman monuments d. Incorporated items from Hadrian, Augustus, and Trajan (only the “good emperors”) 13. Hadrianic medallions, ca. 130-138 CE (installed on), installed on Arch of Constantine, Rome 312- 315 CE a. Nature 14. Constantinian frieze (below medallions), arch of Constantine, Rome 312-315 CE a. Constantine is frontal, hierarchical b. Surrounded by advisors c. Distributing bread to the hungry d. Proportions tend to be squattier, not imitating nature e. Important thing is message f. Frontal figure of Constantine is authority and power, also able to help the citizens 15. Portrait of Constantine, from the Basilica Nova, ca. 315-330 CE a. Head alone is 8’ 6’’ tall b. Probably a wooden scaffolding core with bronze need torso over top, and marble appendages c. god-like presentation d. conceptual rather than modeled on nature i. abstract 16. Basilica Nova (Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine), Rome, ca. 306-312 CE a. 300 ft. long 215 ft. wide 114 ft. high i. Grand imperial scale


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