Social Psychology Week 8 Lecture 15
Social Psychology Week 8 Lecture 15 2606
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sydney Lazzell on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2606 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Brett King in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Colorado at Boulder.
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Date Created: 10/13/16
PSYC 2606: Social Psychology Week 8 Lecture 15 Social Norm of Obedience • = People typically obey those w/authority (descriptive norm) & believe that this is how it should be (prescriptive norm) • So strong – it is a constant of human nature • Can obedience lead to murder? • How far will people obey an authority as inconsequential as a researcher? o Stanley Milgram Study § Over 65% of participants went to 450 volts o BBC video: 9/12 participants went to 450 volts § Participants went on with experiment when told it was essential to go on by the professor (authority obedience) § Similar results across ages/genders/social class Predictions vs. Actual Behavior • Why do people think they would not obey authority to the extent that is actually observed? o Self enhancement o Actor observer effect (must be about individual – don’t think about situation) o Underestimate cognitive dissonance o Underestimate the power of social norm Obedience: Reduced Personal Responsibility • People see themselves as following the experimenter rather than taking action • Become focused on their responsibility to experimenter rather than their responsibility to the learner • Experimenter takes responsibility & people abdicate their responsibility to him Obedience vs. Personal Responsibility • Proximal: learner in same room, can be seen & heard o % obedience: 40% • Touch: have to force learner to take shock after 150 volts o % obedience: 30% Obedience: Salience of Authority • Experimenter uses tone of voice & other non-verbal behaviors to reinforce command o Ignores any reasoning by participants – continues to conform to rules established by experiment • Further reinforced by situational cues • Experimenter absent: gives orders over the phone o % obedience = 25-30% • Ordinary man : asks ordinary man to take experimenter s place – man decides to increase shock level for incorrect answers o % obedience = 20% Obedience: Salience of the Social Norm • Participants role is to obey researcher • Every instance of obedience reinforces norm • Apparent obedience of learner early in session reinforces norm • Peers rebel: participant gives shock – peers rebel st nd o % obedience = 10% (1 peer quit at 150 volts, 2 quit at 210 volts) • Peers obey: participant gives shock – peer continues w/o objection o % obedience = 90% (huge social influence) • Highest w/peers obey; lowest w/peers rebel Additional Factors • Obedience comes in small steps (15 volts) – threshold between good & bad is difficult to establish in the moment • Cognitive dissonance o Justification for each step of obedience makes the next step easier § Typically occurs after “learner” yells & authority convinces them to continue • Can we use lessons learned from Milgram to understand other situations of extreme obedience? o Authority hoax (fake police giving orders – e.g. McDonalds video)
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