Psychology 111, Notes for Social Influences section of Chapter 10: Socioemotional Development in Adolescence
Psychology 111, Notes for Social Influences section of Chapter 10: Socioemotional Development in Adolescence Psychology 111
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Fricke on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 111 at Crafton Hills College taught by Sandra B. Moore in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology: Lifespan 111 in Psychology at Crafton Hills College.
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Date Created: 10/13/16
Chapter 10: Socioemotional Development in Adolescence: SOCIAL INFLUENCES 10/14/2016 ▯ So here’s how my notes work: ▯ ▯ All my notes are in an outline form. The titles in red signify the main sections within each chapter, while subheadings of each section are in blue. The VOCABULARY WORDS are in all caps and are highlighted in pink. Additionally, words that aren’t considered “vocabulary” (aren’t defined in the glossary), but are probably important to know, are bolded and in pink text. Names and organizations (the “who”) are bolded and put into orange text. Important information is in yellow highlighter, and examples, data, and quotes are highlighted in blue. Sometimes, while reading the textbook, these two options (important info/data) can be a little difficult to differentiate between, so I apologize if you think it should be a different color category. Next, dates and historical references can be found in green highlighter. Concepts/steps/theories and things or the like are in white text with purple highlighter. Underlined or bold text basically just means, “Hey, in this super long excerpt of something that’s important, this section is extra important and vital to know”. ▯ ▯ I know the plethora of color can be intimidating at first, but trust me, it works in the long run. When going back to study notes for an exam, it makes it a heck of a lot easier. For example, if you know that the exam is going to be strongly vocabulary based, all you have to search your notes for are the pink terms. In the long run, it helps save you time; your precious time that should be saved for cramming, not searching! ▯ ▯ I hope these notes successfully help you reach your academic goal for this course! Happy studying! ▯ ▯ -Han ▯ ▯ Social Influences I. Secondary Schools A. Increasing teacher control 1. Student’s interest in math in junior high a. A decrease in decision-making opportunities leads to a decrease interest in mathematics i. Increasing teacher control can leave the control- seeking adolescent less motivated to learn B. Decreasing teacher efficacy 1. Teachers feel les effective when they have low-achieving students C. The High School transition 1. Curricular tracking may actually reinforce ethnic and socioeconomic status differences in academic achievement 2. Parents also play an important role II. Parents and Adolescents A. Adult Attachment Interview 1. How attachment security is assessed after childhood 2. Determines adolescent’s ability to integrate their early memories of parental attachment into realistic, positive working model of relationships a. Classified as: i. Secure/Autonomous: able to freely evaluate their early attachments Rated by peers as less anxious, hostile, and aggressive, and more pro-social and resilient Increase in social support and decrease levels of distress ii. Insecure/Dismissive: Rated by peers as high on hostility and low on resilience iii. Insecure/Preoccupied: Low on resilience, but higher levels of distress than dismissive adolescents B. Research on parental gender parent-adolescent relationships 1. Mothers tend to spend more time with children than fathers 2. Daughters tend to experience more pressure from fathers and more emotional support from mothers 3. Sons experience more conflict with fathers than daughters do, and feel more supported by mothers III. Peer Culture A. CROWD: a group of people who may or may not be friends but who share similar attributes to one another 1. Jocks, populars, druggies, etc B. CLIQUE: a tight knit group of friends who share similar values and behaviors C. Social acceptance is one of the highest predictors of self-esteem during adolescence D. Peer group influence may help to explain certain ethnic differences during adolescence 1. European American youths’ higher academic performance is linked to amount of strong parental support a. Hispanic Americans & African Americans report less support E. What rules govern crowds & cliques? 1. Boundaries: a. Upper status crowds = harder to get “in” to b. Lower status crowds = easier to enter 2. Crowd Membership a. High status high SES, athletic, attractive, intelligent b. “outcasts” don’t have “in-crowd” attributes c. “posers” act and dress like popular crowd but aren’t members 3. Peer pressure a. “hazing” to become a member of a group F. Technology 1. PROBLEMATIC INTERNET USE: an excessive preoccupation with internet use that leads to socio-emotional maladjustment, academic difficulties, and physical health problems IV. Romantic Relationships A. 4 phase model to describe stages of building a heterosexual romantic relationship 1. Initiation Phase: begin to become comfortable around opposite sex a. Focuses more on self and whether they have enough confidence to be around said person 2. Status Phase: a. Follows Elkind’s imaginary audience stage b. Dating someone within your “crowd” 3. Affection Phase: meaningful connection between two individuals a. Higher likelihood of sexual activity 4. Bonding Phase: possibility of remaining together for a lifetime B. Emerging homosexual attraction 1. Identity Confusion 2. Identity Comparison a. Accepts possibility of homosexuality and compares themselves to heterosexuals 3. Identity Tolerance a. Tolerance, but not acceptance b. May lead a heterosexual front, but homosexual in private 4. Identity Acceptance a. Begin to disclose sexuality to significant others 5. Identity Pride 6. Identity Synthesis a. Sees themselves as multidimensional people and not JUST as homosexual C. TEEN DATING VIOLENCE: physical assault by a boyfriend or girlfriend against his or her romantic partner that may include psychological and physical violence ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯
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