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Bio 132 - Intro to Animal Behavior notes Week 3

by: Emily Faulconer

Bio 132 - Intro to Animal Behavior notes Week 3 Bi 132

Marketplace > University of Oregon > Biology > Bi 132 > Bio 132 Intro to Animal Behavior notes Week 3
Emily Faulconer
GPA 3.49

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About this Document

These notes cover all the topics discussed over Week 3 of Bio 132. This includes notes on migration, biological clocks, and types of individual and social learning.
Animal Behavior
Class Notes
Bio, 132, Biology, intro, to, animal, behavior, Biological, clocks, migration, social, learning, individual, types, Of, Emily, faulconer, debbie, schlenoff, week, 3
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Faulconer on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bi 132 at University of Oregon taught by in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Animal Behavior in Biology at University of Oregon.


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Date Created: 10/13/16
This package of notes will include the lectures from Monday and Wednesday from Week 3, as well as book notes from the assigned readings. Disclaimer: The book notes will be minimalist, and you will need a textbook as I am avoiding any possibility of perjury. My focus will be to act as a guideline for your own reading. Bio 132 – Lecture 5 – 10/10/16 (Week 3) Social Learning - Learning from others - Imitation learning - Cultural transmission What is teaching? - Elders purposefully showing younger individuals a behavior to help them learn the behavior. Imprinting - First thing seen when hatched becomes the mother - Geese followed after first moving object they see - Affects sexual behavior o Zebra finches fostered by Bengalese finches court Bengalese finches Mammals - Olfactory cues o Imprint on the odor of the animal that nurses them o Will follow others if they have the right odor cue o Kin discrimination: Also imprints on nest-mates and relatives.  Helps to stop inbreeding Song Development - White-crowned sparrow studies o 1. Song acquisition  Hears a song during a critical period in development o 2. Practice: Adds element o 3. Crystallization: Sings full song - Learning a song o Sung abnormal songs when reared alone o Must here the correct song in a critical period of development o Song presented earlier or later – no good o Auditory self-feed back o # of neutrons in song control center increases rapidly Bio 132 – Article on Bees – 10/10/16 Social Learning: - Learning from conspecifics - Encompasses attention, memory, and motivation - A ‘bridge’ between behaviorism and cognitive learning Eusocial - Advanced level of social organization - Single female or caste produces offspring o The rest care for said offspring Bio 132 – Reading 6 – 10/11/16 (Week 3) - Biological clocks are found in every Eukaryotic organism - Cycles continue in the absence of environmental cues o Internal (endogenous) biological clock - Circadian: o A daily rhythm (about 24 hours) o ‘about’ = circa ‘a day’ = diem - Circalunidian o A lunar day - Circamonthly o A month - Circannual o A year - Circadian period length in constant conditions is free-running o No longer manipulated by environmental cycles - Entrain o Reset a biological clock o Most powerful rest = light-dark cycle Rhythmic Behavior - Daily o Light-dark cycles - Lunar o Every 12.4 hours - Semilunar o Spring tides  Full and new moon – highest high tides and lowest low tides o Neap tides  Quarter moons – Highest low tides and lowest high tides - Monthly o Full moon to full moon  Ant lion pits are deeper during the full moon - Annual o Migration Migration - Movement away from the home range that does not stop at the first suitable location o Keep moving until responsive to the presence of resources o Some are a round trip, others one-way  Round trip = long-lived species  One-way = short-lived species - Types of migration o Obligate: Invididual always migrates o Facultative: individual migrates if local conditions degrade o Differential: Migratory patterns of individuals differ by age, class, or gender - Costs o Mortality rate during migration can be very high o Requires huge amount of energy o Risk of starvation o Weary migrants at risk from predators o Bad weather o Obstacles  Man made - Benefits o Trading a less-hospitable environment for a better one o Permits exploitation of temporary or moving food sources o Reproductive benefit of being in a summer habitat o Leaving highly competitive zones o Reduction in predation and parasitism Bio 132 – Lecture 6 – 10/12/16 (Week 3) 1. Circadian behavioral rhythms - About a day o Melatonin and body temperature affected o Feeding Locations change for bees - Seen in all animals and plants - Light/dark cycles help set bio clock o Will continue even without cues Learning and Circadian Rhythms - 1. Without circadian rhythms, hamsters don’t recognize things they’ve investigated before no matter how many times the thing is reintroduced - 2. Cockroaches have different learning ability at different times of the day (better at night) - 3. Longer Rhythms o Lunar o Seasonal o Annual o Monthly Migration - Observed in many animals - Optimality = cost/benefit analysis - Traits are not perfect, but the best under circumstances - Benefits & costs: see page 3 Orientation Cues - 1. Chemical olfaction o Salmon and pidgeons - 2. Sound o Whales and bats - 3. Electrical o Dogfish sharkes - 4. Magnetic cues - 5. Visual cues Climate change on migration - Pied Flycatcher o Spring is coming earlier so catepillars are hatching earlier o When flycatchers arrive, catepillars are already gone o Not good for fly catchers


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