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HIST 3045, Week 7 Notes

by: Caroline Jok

HIST 3045, Week 7 Notes HIST 3045

Caroline Jok
GPA 3.8

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Week 7 Notes for International History of the Cold War Professor Paul Pitman HIST 3045 13 October 2016
International History of the Cold War
Prof. Tudda
Class Notes
coldwar, history, International, Affairs
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Jok on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 3045 at George Washington University taught by Prof. Tudda in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see International History of the Cold War in History at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 10/13/16
International History of the Cold War 13 October 2016 Nedelin Catastrophe - Oct. 1960 • Even though in the west people thought the Soviets were ahead in Missiles, this was not the case o "Turning out missiles like sausages" A Constructed Peace 1. Introduction: What was the Cold War About? a. Liberal, capitalist democracy vs. Soviet communism (from breakdown fo WWII Alliance) b. Balance of Power i. East vs. West ii. Land vs. Sea (and air) 1. The Russians can move across land 2. The United States was extremely strong in it's navy c. Competition between social Systems i. Political, military, industrial, technological, culture 1. All around the world, people come to power as members of parties 2. If your social systems are going to compete how are they going to compete? ii. Forms of mobilization: US vs. Soviet 1. Building a navy vs. building an army d. Focus on Germany's military potential i. Irony? Global conflict but a lot of the cold war was about Germany and whether they would be rearmed, and whether west Germany would stay with NATO, whether Germans would reunite ii. Why do we have to be nice to the Germans? So they don't go neutral or against us e. Cold War as World System i. Competition between social system that covers the world ii. Domestic politics penetrated by international ideological transformation f. Vision of peace: How will this end? i. Peace through convergence (regime change aka: Democratic peace theory) 1. The U.S. gets along with other democracies and likewise the Soviets get a long with other consequences ii. United Nations: Law and collective security iii. Commerce (Markets lead to liberalism) 1. Once people trade with each other they will transition to democratic regimes. iv. Détente based on: 1. Superpowers (Spirit of Geneva, LTBT) a. They do cut a deal, but it is at the expense of their allies 2. Multipolarity (DeGaulle, Nixon) a. A tug of war between the United States and Soviets was a big fuel for conflict when there were only 2 countries in power, but if there were more then it is less of an issue. 3. Wandel durch Annaherung 4. *There is no perfect solution: It requires compromise and trust. 5. German Social democratic views: If you have closer relations, your social systems will begin to change v. Diplomacy from below 1. Peace movements 2. Civil rights vi. Deterrence… 1. Sufficiently strong, but not too strong 2. Trying to balance the Security Dilemma g. Three Stages: i. Origins (1917-47) ii. Great power settlement (1947 -1963) 1. 1947-1950: regional political economic blocs 2. 50-54: global military competition 3. 55-57: peaceful coexistence (1st détente) 4. 58-63: Crisis Years iii. Cold War as a system: the international order was the cold war 1. Stabilization (63-68): relative decline of superpowers a. Countries like Japan and Germany get more powerful and the superpowers are less able to dominate 2. Détente (69-79): recognition of WWII borders; arms control; Est -West trade 3. New Cold War (79-85): Afghanistan, Euro missiles 4. Fall of Soviet System (86 -90) 2. Mobilization Options: Domestic Roots of Grand Strategy? a. Bipolarity i. Decline of West European pow ers, Japan ii. No time to mobilize before Eurasia is conquered b. Technology: Nukes plus bombers, ICBMs c. Issue for west: how to block totalitarian threat without building a garrison state? i. So that the Soviet Union doesn't invade the major center of industrial power (Germany) without permanently spending too much money for military rearmament and having a constant draft. ii. The United States rebuilds Japan and Germany and surrounds the soviets with bases d. For East: How to build socialism while encircled? e. Conventional Timeline i. Before 193n: Mobilization 1. 45-50: Debate a. Minimum deterrence vs. WWIII b. We will be safe c. It's not ok to be the only liberal economy/democratic country 2. 50-52: Warfighting (Truman) a. Election is taking place b. Plan to win long, intense conventional and nuclear war c. Means heavy taxes; industrial planning; wide conscription 3. 53-60: Massive Retaliation (Eisenhower) a. Wants greater dependence on Nuclear weapons b. Plan to deter conventional and nuclear attack c. Low taxes; encourage private enterprise; limit conscription 4. 61 - on: Flexible Response (Kennedy) a. Plan for limited wars on periphery, in Europe b. Raise defense spending, but avoid planning f. Why does the Untied States make the choices that it makes? i. Balance of power 1. Conventional balance 2. Peripheral threats 3. Emergence of parity ii. Domestic forces 1. Military, industrial, academic complex 2. Popular opposition, congress, liberal ideology iii. Alliance politics? g. Why do they matter? i. Flexible Response; needed for alliance? ii. Flexible response allows West to prevail 1. Allows more effective mobilization of technology, enterprise than Soviet Synthesis iii. But Flexible response undermines US hegemony in the Atlantic System (Freiberg) h. Soviet Choices i. Before 1939: mobilization ii. 1945-52: Buffer zone plus nukes iii. 1953-60 New look and bluff iv. 1963: we will catch up 3. Nuclearization of NATO: Origins and Consequences a. The peripheral Strategy (Air Force) i. Bomb cities, industrial centers ii. Fall back (as far as Spain), then retake w hatever is left of Western Europe (after Dday and 90?) b. Forward Defense (army) i. Requires large conventional forces ii. Bomb POL, supply lines, staging areas iii. Politically sound for alliance. c. Actually happens: i. Lisbon conference of NATO: Atlantic partners plan conventional forward defense (50 ready divisions, 4000 air craft) ii. Army leaders integrate nuclear weapons in Defense planning iii. Air Force's political strength persuades Europeans to accept nuclearized strategy. d. The New Look and the MC -48 i. US New Look: Shifts to massive retaliation ii. Grows out of SACEUR plans: Air and sea power to strike flanks, 50 -60 divisions at center iii. MC-48: Calls for massive nuclear attack very early iv. Dec. 54: Europeans give US pt. SACEUR power to sta rt nuclear war. e. Unintended Consequences i. Paris Accords on German Rearmament 1. Requires US troop presence 2. Germans potential atomic weapons partners ii. Leads to European deterrent 1. Jean Valluy (F member of SG) reports in August 1954 2. French decide Dec. 1954 3. Germans Decide 1956: Umrüstung (F.J. Strauss Defense Minister) 4. Permanent US Presence gives allies Leverage 5. BOTTOM LINE: Contradicts US grand Strategy: integrated Europe as a "third great powers bloc" f. Economic Consequences i. Germany delays rearmament and resi st paying for foreign troops (Juliustrum) ii. Offset: arms sales offset stationing costs, but undermine European integration iii. European Nuclear programs wasteful and raise East -West tensions iv. EEC, Euratom response to US hegemony post Suez v. US BoP decline undermin es Bretton Woods g. Sharing: Make them available to other countries i. Eisenhower: Favors sharing; allows defacto control & Provides technical help to French Program ii. Kennedy: Centralized control (PALs: Permissive action link) MLF (Multilateral Force): State( AC HESON, Ball) Favors; DOD (Nitze) opposed. 4. Cuban Missile Crisis a. Khruschev: Why station missiles in Cuba? Berlin? Castro? i. A main issue for the Soviets was Berlin - the loss of the skilled workers from east Germany because they went to west Germany. Soviets are worried about the Nuclearization of West Germany ii. Cuba is a peripheral location b. Options for US? Air Strike, invasions, blockade, secret deal… c. Settlement: Missiles, IL -28s out in exchange for non -invasion pledge + TU d. Aftermath: Search for settlement to German Problem. e. Solution: Side agreements to the NTBT - Summer 1963 - Near Settlement i. Nuclear Free Germany and China 1. Counter proliferation targets France -Israel Link, etc. ii. US adopts MAD 1. Flexible response retained to satisfy and control Germa ns iii. Accept European Status Quo 1. Division of Germany into 2 countries. 2. Opens way for Ostpolitik iv. Offset: Blessing Letter (March 1967) v. Competition shifts to Third World: Vietnam vi. Takeaway: Stabilizes the Cold War f. Sharing: Alliance Crisis: i. Post-Cuba US helps UK - Polaris at Nassau ii. French refuse offer but take KC 135s iii. 1963: deGaulle uses Nassau to veto MLF, British entry in EEC, press Franco -German iv. Summer 1963: Americans Back atlanticists against Adenauer, replaced by Erhard v. August 1963 LTBT aimed at Germany and China vi. US Promises troops for Germany (October 63) 5. Conclusion


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