Week 3: Chapters 5+6
Week 3: Chapters 5+6 SOC 204
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Date Created: 10/13/16
Chapter 5 Groups, Networks, and Organizations What are social groups? Social group: a collection of people who share a common identity and regularly interact with one another Social aggregate: a simple collection of people who happen to be together in a particular place but do nit significantly interact or identify with one another Social category: people sharing a common characteristic without necessarily interacting or identifying with one another In-groups: groups towards which one feels particular loyalty and- respect Out-groups: groups towards which one feels antagonism and contempt Primary groups: made up of families, peers, and friends characterized by face to face interaction unity, or merging of self into the group Secondary groups: are large and impersonal, often involve fleeting relationships rare emotional ties can't typically "be yourself" in secondary groups people join secondary groups to complete a task Reference group: a group that provides a standard for judging one's own attitudes or behaviors (family, peers, coworkers, etc.) you don't have to belong to the group for it to be a reference group (e.g. Hollywood stars) The Effects of Size Dyads: consist of two persons; o involve both intimacy and conflict o are both intense and unstable o can be very fragile Triads: consist of three persons o More stable than dyads o One person can temporarily but draw without threatening triad o Dyad may form within triad causing conflict Larger groups: o Increased ability; several people could pull away without endangering the group Types of leadership Leader: a person able to influence others Transformational leaders: go beyond routine, instilling in the members of the group a sense of purpose Transactional leaders: get the job done o Leadership is routine (e.g. teaching a class) Conformity Psychologist Solomon Asch (1952) debonstrates the power of group influence o When everyone else in the group clearly chose the wrong answer (as instructed to do), subject chose the wrong answer as well o Read full study on page 136 Stanley Milgram's research (1963) demonstrates obidence to authority o Milgram told the teacher (subject) to shock the learner (who was in on the study) every time the got an answer wrong o The shock level increased each time (the shocks were fake and the learner was actually just screams from pain prerecorded) o The conclusion: ordinary citizens will conform to orders given by someone in a position of authority Irving L. Janis (1972 & 1989) o Groupthink: a process by which the members of a group ignore those ideas, suggestions, and plans of action that go against the group consensus How Do We Benefit from Social Networks? Networks: all the direct and indirect connections that link a person or a group with other people or groups Direct: your friends Indirect: your friends friends We use networks to benefit ourselves World Wide Web (www) was developed in the 1990's and allows people to connect Not everyone has equal access to Internet (might be too poor to afford it not know how to operate it) How Do Organizations Functions Organization: a group with an identifiable membership that engage in concerted collective actions to achieve a common purpose Formal organization: is rationally designed to achieve its objectives Has rules, regulations, and procedures Theories of organization Max Weber stated organizations are ways of coordinating the activities of human beings, or the goods they produce, in a stable manner Saw organizations as hierarchial Bureaucracy: the rule of officials Weber argued expansion of bureaucracy is inevitable in moder societies; only way to work at a large scale Weber created an "ideal" type of bureaucracy (ideal meaning a pure form, not meaning most desirable) Ideal bureaucracy: 1. A clear- cut hierarchy of authority, such that test in the organization are distributed as "official duties" 2. Written rules govern the conduct of officials at all levels of the organization 3. Officials are full-time and salaried 4. There is a separation between the tasks of an official within the organization in his or her life outside 5. No members of the organization on the material resources with which they operate Bureaucrasy could be seen as dull, lacking personal creativity Formal relations: The relations between people as stated in the rules of the organization Informal networks: develops at all levels of the organization; connections maybe more important in the formal situations in which decisions are supposed be made Iron law of oligarchy: the loss of power at lower levels of a bureaucracy because of power going to the top Term comes from Weber's student Robert Muchels (1911) Gender and organizations 1970's rise of feminist scholarship led to more gender studies Two main ways in which gender is embedded in the structure of modern organizations: o Bureaucracies are characterized by occupational gender segregation; Woman in low-paying jobs involving routine work, governed by men so never promoted o Idea of the bureaucratic career as a male career; Woman played supporting roles Is Bureaucracy an Outdated Model? more and more organizations are turning away from Weber's idea of all the power and knowledge at the top of the chain in an organization are now allowing more people to participate in roles seen as higher up in status. This is said to allow creativity and innovation Two popular branches of management theory Human resource management: a style of management that regards a company's workforce as vital to its economic competitiveness o Employees must be dedicate for a company to do well, so human resource management finds ways to engage and excite workers Corporate culture: closely related to human resource manageable; management tries to build an organizational culture by involving rituals and events unique to the company Technology and modern organization: Information technology: computers and electronic communication media such as the Internet Technology has made workers more efficient and communication world wide easier The "McDonaldization" of society four guiding principles for McDonaldization (the process by which the principles of the fast-food restaurants are coming to dominate mroe and more sectors of American society) 1. Efficiency 2. Calculability 3. Uniformity 4. Control through automation How do Groups and Organizations Affect your Life? Social capital:The social knowledge and connections that enable people to accomplish their goals and extend their influence Broad concept that encompasses useful social networks, sense of mutual obligation + trustworthiness, understanding of norms that govern Men more capital than women, whites more capital than nonwhites Decline in involvement of people in organizations has resulted in less trustworthiness in people and less social capital Trust in U.S. government has declined sharply since 1970's o June 2013 public discovered National Security Agency was collecting citizens private phone calls Programs today emphasis personal growth and wealth rather than group improvement and togetherness; every man for them self now Chapter 6 Conformity, Deviance, and Crime Norms: clearly defined and established principles or rules people are expected to observe Mores: Norma that are widely aherded to and have a great social and moral significance Folkways: norms that guide our every day actions (e.g. cutting someone in line would be violation of a folkway) We all break rules (e.g. Speeding) We all are rule makers (what people do regularly, overtime, becomes a "rule") What Is Deviant Behavior? Deviance: nonconformity to a given set of norms that are accepted by a significant number of people Many behaviors (such as underage drinking or speeding) are not considered deviant because they are normative Deviant subculture: a subculture that is separated from norms and acts out in deviance Sanction: any reaction from others to the behavior of an individual or group that is meant to ensure that the person or group complies with a given norm Laws: norms defined by government Crime: breaking government laws Why do People Commit Deviant Acts? Biological view of deviance 1870s, Cesare Lombroso (an Italian criminologist) believed criminal types could be identified by the shape of the skull. (This idea is heavily criticized and not accepted anymore.) Three types of human physique ( This idea is heavily criticized and not accepted anymore.) o Muscular, active types more likely to become delinquent o Thin types less likely than muscular o Fleshy types less likely than muscular Child research in New Zealand believes that biological factors apparent at birth mixed with certain social factors leads to delinquency The psychological view of deviance Psychopaths: withdrawn, emotionless characters who delight and violence for its own sake o Sometimes commit violent acts, but are not inherently criminals Biological and psychological approaches to criminality presume that deviance is a sign of something "wrong" with the individual rather than with society. Sociology looks at social environment as a cause of criminology. Socialogical view on deviance Functionalist theories: see crime and deviance resulting from structural tensions and lack of moral regulation within society Emile Durkheim: sociologist o Saw crime and deviance as social facts; both inevitable and necessary o Deviance introduces new challenges, is a innovative factor Deviance contributes to balance of society o Anomie: introduced by Emile Durkheim; suggested that in modern societies, social norms may lose their hold over individual behavior o Exist when no clear standards exist to guide behavior in an area of life Robert K. Merton (1957) constructed a highly influential theory of deviance that located source of crime within the very structure of American Society o Modified concept of anomie to refer to the strain put on individuals' behavior when accepted norms conflict with social reality o Five possible reactions to tensions socially endorsed values and the limited means of achieving o Conformist: accept societal values+conventional means of realizing them, majority of population Innovators: accept socially approved values but use illegal means to follow them (e.g. criminal becoming wealthy illegally) Ritualists: conform to socially accepted standards although they've lost sight of the values behind them (e.g. remain in boring job with no career prospects Retreatists: abandoned competitive outlook altogether (e.g. self supporting commune) Rebels: reject values+construct of social structure o Relative deprivation: the recognition that one has less that his or here peers Subculture Explained Albert Cohen (1955) "Delinquent Boys" o Argued that boys in lower class frustrated with their live join together to create gangs Richard A. Cloward and Llyod E. Ohlin (1960) a o Argued that gangs arise in subcultural communities where chances of achieving success are low Reinforcement theories: Differential association: argues that we learn deviant behavior in precisely the same way we learn about conventional behavior; from peers+family Control theory: argues crime occurs as a result of an imbalance between impulses toward criminal activity and the social or physical controls that deter it o Crimes are results of "situational decisions" meaning someone sees a chance and takes it Conflict Theory Conflict theory: seeks to identify why people commit crime o deviance is deliberately chosen and often political in nature o Don't believe deviance is due to biology or anomie New criminology: analysis of crime and deviance in terms of the structure of society and preservation of power among ruling class (e.g. laws to preserve powerful peoples' rights) Symbolic interactionist approach Labeling theory: persons with the greatest social and economical power tend to place labels on those with lesser social power o interpret deviance not as a set of characteristics of individuals or groups but as a process of interaction between deviants and non- deviants o e.g. Howard s Becker's 1963 study on marijuana smokers; it is not the marijuana smoking that makes one deviant, but rather the way others react to marijuana smoking Primary deviance: initial act of rule breaking Secondary deviance: occurs when the individual comes to accept the label and sees himself or herself as deviant How do we Document Crime? Uniform Crime Reports (UCR): contains official data on crime that is reported to law enforcement agencies across the country Focuses on index crimes which includes serious crimes such as murder and non-negligent manslaughter, robbery, forcible rape, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny/theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson Only 11.9% of crimes are violent Gender and crime 2011, 93% of people in jail were males over the age of 18 Gender contract: the implicit contrast between men and women whereby to be a woman is to be erratic and impulsive, on the one hand, and in need of protection on the other Youth and Crime 2012, 28% of all offenders arrested for criminal offenses were age twenty-one or younger youthful deviants can still go on to live a crime free life Crimes of the powerful White collar crime: crime typically carried out by people in the more affluent sectors of society Corporate crime: refers to criminal offenses committed by large corporations Organized Crime: refers to forms of activity that have some of the characteristics of orthodox business but that are illegal The narcotic trade is one of the most rapidly expanding international criminal industries (annual growth rate over 10%) How can Crime be Reduced? Are prisons the answer? Surveys suggest Americans in favor of prisons 2011, it cost $28,893 per year to keep a prisoner in federal prison system U.S. locks up more people than any other country per capita 2012, 63% of Americans surveyed were in favor of death penalty Community policing: implies not only drawing in citizens themselves but changing the characteristic outlook of police forces (crime prevention rather than law enforcement) Target hardening: a practice that makes it more difficult for criminals to commit crimes by minimizing their opportunities to do so Shaming: a form of punishing criminal and deviant behavior
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