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PSYCH 1310

by: Swider Notetaker
Swider Notetaker

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About this Document

Vocabulary for test 3.
Intro to Psychology
Dr. Leonard
Class Notes
Intro to Psychology
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Swider Notetaker on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc at East Tennessee State University taught by Dr. Leonard in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at East Tennessee State University.

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Date Created: 10/14/16
Chapter 8 Vocabulary  Reflex  ­ An inevitable, involuntary response to stimuli.  Instinct  ­ An inborn pattern of behavior elicited by environmental stimuli; also known as a fixed  action pattern.  Learning  ­ A relatively permanent change in behavior or the capacity for behavior due to experience. Associate Learning  ­ The formation of associations or connections among stimuli and behaviors.  Classical Conditioning  ­ A type of learning in which associations are formed between two stimuli that occur  sequentially in time.  Operant Conditioning  ­ A type of learning in which associations are formed between behaviors and their  outcomes.  Nonassociative Learning  ­ Learning that involves changes in the magnitude of responses to stimuli.  Habituation  ­ A simple form of learning in which reactions to repeated stimuli that are unchanging and  harmless decrease.  Sensitization  ­ An increased reaction to many stimuli following exposure to one strong stimulus.  Observational Learning  ­ Learning that occurs when one organism watches the actions of another organism, also  known as social learning or modeling.  Conditioned Stimulus (CS)  ­ An environmental event whose significance is learned through classical conditioning.  Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)  ­ A stimulus that elicits a response without prior experience.  Conditioned Response (CR)  ­ A response learned through classical conditioning.  Unconditioned Response (UCR)  ­ A response to an unconditioned stimulus that requires no previous experience.  Acquisition  ­ The development of a learned response.  Extinction  ­ The reduction of a learned response. In classical conditioning, extinction occurs when the unconditioned stimulus no longer follows the conditioned stimulus. In operant  conditioning, extinction occurs when the consequence no longer follows the learned  behavior.  Spontaneous Recovery ­ During extinction training, the reappearance of conditioned responses after periods of  rest.  Inhibition  ­ A feature of classical conditioning in which a conditioned stimulus predicts the  nonoccurrence of an unconditioned stimulus.  Generalization  ­ The tendency to respond to stimuli that are similar to an original conditioned stimulus.  Discrimination  ­ A learned ability to distinguish between stimuli.  Higher Order Conditioning  ­ Learning in which stimuli associated with a conditioned stimulus also elicit conditioning  responses.  Latent Inhibition  ­ The slower learning that occurs when a conditioned stimulus (CS) is already familiar  compared to when the CS is unfamiliar.  Aversion Therapy  ­ An application of counterconditioning in which a conditioned stimulus (CS) formerly  paired with a pleasurable unconditioned stimulus (UCS)  is instead paried with an  unpleasant UCS.  Systematic Desensitization  ­ A type of counterconditioning in which people relax while being exposed to stimuli that  elicit fear.  Conditioned Rein forcer  ­ A rein forcer that gains value from being associated with other things that are valued;  also known as a secondary rein forcer.  Negative Reinforcement  ­ A method for increasing behaviors that allow an organism to escape or avoid an  unpleasant consequence.  Punishment  ­ A consequence that eliminates or reduces the frequency of a behavior.  Positive Punishment  ­ A consequence that eliminates or reduces the frequency of a behavior by applying an  aversive stimulus.  Negative Punishment  ­ A method for reducing behavior by removing something desirable whenever the target  behavior occurs.  Partial Reinforcement  ­ The reinforcement of a desired behavior on some occasions but not others.  Fixed Ration (FR) Schedule  ­ A schedule of reinforcement in which reinforcement occurs following a set number of  behaviors.  Variable Ration (VR) Schedule  ­ A schedule of reinforcement in which reinforcement occurs following some variable  number of behaviors.  Fixed Interval (FI) Schedule  ­ A schedule of reinforcement in which the first response following a specified intercal is  reinforced.  Variable Interval (VI) Schedule  ­ A schedule of reinforcement in which the first response following a varying period is  reinforced.  Partial Reinforcement Effect in Extinction  ­ The more rapid extinction observed following continuous.  Latent Learning  ­ Learning that occurs in the absence of reinforcement.  Token Economy  ­ An application of operant conditioning in which tokens that can be exchanged for other  rein forcers are used to increase the frequency of desirable behaviors.  Imitations  ­ Copying behavior that is unlikely to occur naturally and spontaneously.  Chapter 9 Vocabulary  Memory  ­ The ability to retain knowledge.  Information Processing  ­ A continuum including attention, sensation, perception, learning, memory, and cognition. Encoding  ­ The transformation of information from one form to another.  Storage  ­ The retention of information.  Retrieval  ­ The recovery of stored information.  Sensory Memory  ­ The first stage of the Atkinson­Shiffrin model that holds large amounts of incoming data  for brief amounts of time.  Short­Term Memory (STM)  ­ The second stage of Atkinson­Shiffrin model that holds a small amount of information  for a limited time.  Chunking  ­ The process of grouping similar or meaningful information together.  Working Memory  ­ An extinction of the concept of short­term memory that includes the active manipulation  of multiple types of information simultaneously.  Long­Term Memory  ­ The final stage of the Atkinson­Shiffrin model that is the location of permanent  memories.  Levels of Processing Theory  ­ The depth (shallow to deep) of processing applied to information that predicts its ease of  retrieval.  Declarative Memory  ­ A consciously retrieved memory that is easy to verbalize, including semantic, episodic,  and autobiographical information; also known as explicit memory.  Nondeclarative Memory  ­ An unconsciously and effortlessly retrieved memory that is difficult to verbalize, such as  a memory for classical conditioning, procedural learning, and priming; also known as  implicit memory.  Semantic Memory  ­ A general knowledge memory.  Episodic Memory  ­ A memory for personal experience.  Autobiographical Memory  ­ Semantic or episodic memories that reference the self.  Procedural Memory  ­ A Nondeclarative or implicit memory for how to carry out skilled movement.  Priming  ­ A change in a responsive to a stimulus as a result of exposure to a previous stimulus.  Spreading Activation Model  ­ A connectionist theory promising that people organize general knowledge based on their  individual experiences.  Schema  ­ A set of explanations about objects and situations.  Cue  ­ A stimulus that aids retrieval.  Encoding Specify  ­ A process in which memories incorporate unique combinations of information when  encoded.  Reconstruction  ­ Rebuilding a memory out of stored elements.  Flashbulb Memory  ­ An especially vivid and detailed memory of an emotional event.  Forgetting  ­ A decrease in the ability to remember a previously formed memory.  Decay  ­ A reduction in ability to retrieve rarely used information over time.  Interference  ­ Competition between newer and older information in memory.  Motivated Forgetting  ­ Failure to retrieve negative memories.  Long­Term Potential (LTP) ­ The enhancement of communication between two neurons resulting from their  synchronous activation.  Mnemonics  ­ Memory aids that link new information to well­known information. 


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