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BIOL190: Energy & Cell Metabolism (Week 7 Notes)

by: Talia Douglas

BIOL190: Energy & Cell Metabolism (Week 7 Notes) BIOL 190

Marketplace > Towson University > Biology > BIOL 190 > BIOL190 Energy Cell Metabolism Week 7 Notes
Talia Douglas
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These notes are composed of important information from the Campbell Biology book sections: 5.10-5.11. I am also going to post my study guide that reviews some of these notes on this section, but th...
Introduction to Biology Health Professions
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Talia Douglas on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 190 at Towson University taught by N/A in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology Health Professions in Biology at Towson University.


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Date Created: 10/14/16
Week 7 Notes: Energy & Cell Metabolism Hi Class! These notes are composed of important information from the  Campbell Biology book sections: 5.10­5.11. I am also going to  post my study guide that reviews some of these notes, but these  notes are more in depth.   Highlight key: Yellow Highlight: ME talking Purple Highlight: Definitions Underlined: Very important things to remember Review! What is matter? Matter is any material or substance that  takes up space. 5.10 CELLS TRANSFROM ENERGY AS THEY PERFORM WORK What is energy?  The capacity to cause change or to perform work. Has ability to move and change the arrangement of matter.  All of an organism’s activities require energy, which is  from sugar and other molecules by exergonic reactions of  cellular respiration. For knowledge, kinetics in general asks the question “how fast  does it happen?” when concerning the speed of reactions.  The (2) Basic Forms of Energy:  Kinetic Energy: the energy of motion to other matter.  o Ex. The movement of your legs pushing bicycle pedals. o One type of kinetic energy:  Thermal energy: a type of kinetic energy  associated with the random movement of atoms or  molecules.   Can transfer from one object to the next by  heat.  Potential Energy: the energy that matter possesses as a  result of its location and structure. o Ex. Water behind a dam or you on a bicycle at the top  of a hill. o Stored energy derived from the position of an object. o One Type of Potential Energy  Chemical Energy: the potential energy available  for release in a chemical reaction.  “Circle of Life”= Energy Utilization Week 7 Notes: Energy & Cell Metabolism  Photosynthesis: the transfer of energy;  process in which plant cells make sugar.  (Light Energy)+CO +H O= sugar 2 2 o Creates glucose and oxygen from carbon  dioxide and water.  Animals produce their own chemical energy  using mitochondria. The most important type of energy for living  organisms. Function: the energy that can be transformed  to power the work of the cell. NOT spontaneous, requires energy What is thermodynamics?  The study of energy transformations that occur in a  collection of matter; asks the question “will it happen?” o First Law (Law of Energy Conservation): States that the quantity of energy in the universe is constant.  Energy can be transferred and transformed, but  cannot be created or destroyed.  Ex. A plant cell converts light energy to  chemical energy, but cannot produce energy o Second Law: States that the energy conversions increase the disorder or entropy of the universe; entropy always increases so the energy quality in the universe is NOT  constant.   Amount of useful energy declines over time to a  more disordered state.  Processes involved in conversion of heat energy  are irreversible because the transformations are  not 100% efficient and because useful energy is  lost as heat. What is entropy?  A quantity used as a measure of randomness.  o The more randomly arranged a collection of matter is,  the greater its entropy.  o Basically, useful energy eventually will decline to a  more disordered state and that is entropy. For example, taking a shower in the morning. You will be fresh when  you get out but eventually over the course of the day,  the freshness will start to wear off, or decline.   High Entropy: More disorder and randomness  Low Entropy: Less disorder and randomness What is cellular respiration? Week 7 Notes: Energy & Cell Metabolism  The chemical energy stored in organic molecules used to  produce ATP, which the cell uses to perform work. o Spontaneous, produces energy 5.11 CHEMICAL REACTIONS EITHER RELEASE OR STORE ENERGY The Two Types of Chemical Reactions: 1. Exergonic reaction: releases energy. o Begins with reactants whose covalent bonds contain more potential energy than those in the products. (Potential Energy= Reactants > Products) o Releases the amount of energy equal to the difference  in potential energy and the reactants and products. o  Ex. Cellular respiration 2. Endergonic reaction: requires a net input of energy and  yield products that are rich in potential energy.  o Begins with reactants that contain relatively little  potential energy. (Potential Energy= Reactants <  Products) o Energy absorbed from surroundings that results in the  products of this reaction containing more chemical  energy than the reactants. o  Ex. Photosynthesis What is metabolism?  The total of an organism’s chemical reactions.  Metabolic pathway: a series of chemical reactions that  either builds a complex molecule or breaks down a complex  molecule to simpler compounds.  o Ex. Slow burn of cellular respiration (sequence of  reactions slowly release the potential energy stored in sugar)  Energy Coupling: the use of energy released from exergonic  reactions to drive endergonic reactions. o Crucial in all cells. o ATP molecules are the key!


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