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Chapter 3, Cells for anatomy lecture

by: Amy Casida

Chapter 3, Cells for anatomy lecture Bio121

Marketplace > Stark State College > Anatomy and Physiology > Bio121 > Chapter 3 Cells for anatomy lecture
Amy Casida


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About this Document

This covers the outer layer of the cell and explains proteins in it.
Anatomy and physiology 1
Dr. Ryan
Class Notes
anatomy, Physiology, Biotransport
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amy Casida on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio121 at Stark State College taught by Dr. Ryan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and physiology 1 in Anatomy and Physiology at Stark State College.


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Date Created: 10/14/16
Chapter  3-­‐  Cells     cells-­‐  basic  structural  and  function  al  unit  of  the  body     Each  cell  has  a  certain  size/shape,  depending  on  its  function.    Each  cell   has  to  work  together  to  maintain  homeostasis.     Cell  membrane-­‐  uses  this  for  communication  from  one  cell  to  another.     Also  used  for  protection  and  maintaining  its  own  homeostasis.     In  the  cell  membrane,  the  roundish-­‐like  tops  are  called  phosphos,  while   the  squiggly  lines  underneath  are  called  lipids.    This  forms  the   phospholipid.      A  phospholipid  is  the  most  abundant  chemical  on  the  cell   and  is  the  structural  unit  of  the  cell.     One  side  of  the  phospholipid  layer  faces  the  outside,  and  one  layer  faces   the  inside.    This  is  called  the  phospholipid  bilayer.     Extracellular  fluid-­‐  fluid  outside  the  cell.     Cytoplasm/Intracellular  fluid-­‐  fluid  inside  the  cell.     The  phospholipid  bilayer  prevents  extracellular  fluid  from  getting  inside   the  cell.    If  the  fluid  inside  of  the  cell  changes,  the  function  changes  as   well.     Because  the  phospholipid  bilater  is  mostly  fatty  acids,  it  usually  repels   the  extracellular  fluid,  which  is  usually  water.     Cholesterol  molecules-­‐  act  like  “nails”  to  fasten  the  phospholipids   together.    This  allows  the  cell  membrane  to  have  structural  integrity.     Proteins-­‐  give  cell  membranes  higher-­‐order  functioning.   Example:  If  this  classroom  only  had  4  walls,  no  windows  or  doors,  there   wouldn’t  be  much  function.    With  doors  and  windows,  there  is  function.               6  Common  Proteins:     1. Ion  channel-­‐  a  protein  that  allows  a  certain  ion  to  enter/leave  the   cell.    They  are  chemical-­‐specific.   Example:  Like  the  door  of  the  classroom.   -­‐size   -­‐geometrical  orientation   -­‐type  of  chemical   …is  important   2. Transport  proteins/carrier  proteins-­‐  take  a  chemical  from  the   outside   ▯  pulls  it  inside.    This  is  how  we  get  glucose  into  the  cell.     Key:  you  have  to  activate  the  protein  aka  insulin.   3. Receptors-­‐    Designed  to  receive  another  molecule  aka   “attachment.”    If  the  chemical  attaches  to  this  receptor,  certain   things  will  happen  inside  the  cell.   Example:  wall  outlet,  the  shape  and  orientation  of  the  plug/outlet   matter.   4. Enzymes-­‐  Act  as  a  catalyst  ▯  which  activates  chemical  reactions   @  lower  temperatures.  98.6  degrees.   5. Cell  Identity  Marker-­‐  Recognition  between  own  cell  &  bacteria.     Each  person  has  a  unique  type  of  marker,  helps  with  immunity.   Histocompatibility-­‐Measures  how  compatible  the  tissue  is  as  a   marker  with  other  tissues.   Example:  the  room  number  of  the  classroom.   6. Linking/Anchoring  proteins-­‐  In  cell  membrane,  helps  link  one  cell   to  the  other.   Example:  what  links  rail  cars  together.    If  one  moves  they  all   move.   Basement  membranes    ▯  linked  to  epithelial  tissue.    *These  are   defective  in  cancer  cells,  so  they  spread  easier.                     Membrane  Transport  (Biotransport)     Biotransport-­‐  the  movement  of  molecules  (chemicals)  into  or  out  of  the   cell.   Have  to  choose:     -­‐When     -­‐Where   -­‐How  much   …chemicals  get  in  or  out.     This  must  be  controlled.    This  is  called  selective  permeability-­‐  the   control  and  regulation  of    chemicals  entering  or  leaving  the  cell.     Biotransport-­‐  well  use  the  most  effective  way  to  transport  the  chemical.     Example:  We  decide  whether  to  walk,  drive,  or  take  a  plane  to  get  to  a   destination.     Passive  transport-­‐   1. Do  not  use  energy,  or  ATP.    ATP=adenosinetriphosphate     2. Move  from  a  high  concentration  to  a  lower  concentration  of   molecules  within  a  specified  area.    This  is  called  with  the  gradient.     Active  transport-­‐   Uses  work.   1. Do  use  energy/  ATP   2. Move  from  a  high  concentration  to  a  lower  concentration  of   molecules  within  a  specified  area.    This  is  called   against  the   gradient.        


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