Chapter 3, Cells for anatomy lecture
Chapter 3, Cells for anatomy lecture Bio121
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amy Casida on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio121 at Stark State College taught by Dr. Ryan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and physiology 1 in Anatomy and Physiology at Stark State College.
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Date Created: 10/14/16
Chapter 3-‐ Cells cells-‐ basic structural and function al unit of the body Each cell has a certain size/shape, depending on its function. Each cell has to work together to maintain homeostasis. Cell membrane-‐ uses this for communication from one cell to another. Also used for protection and maintaining its own homeostasis. In the cell membrane, the roundish-‐like tops are called phosphos, while the squiggly lines underneath are called lipids. This forms the phospholipid. A phospholipid is the most abundant chemical on the cell and is the structural unit of the cell. One side of the phospholipid layer faces the outside, and one layer faces the inside. This is called the phospholipid bilayer. Extracellular fluid-‐ fluid outside the cell. Cytoplasm/Intracellular fluid-‐ fluid inside the cell. The phospholipid bilayer prevents extracellular fluid from getting inside the cell. If the fluid inside of the cell changes, the function changes as well. Because the phospholipid bilater is mostly fatty acids, it usually repels the extracellular fluid, which is usually water. Cholesterol molecules-‐ act like “nails” to fasten the phospholipids together. This allows the cell membrane to have structural integrity. Proteins-‐ give cell membranes higher-‐order functioning. Example: If this classroom only had 4 walls, no windows or doors, there wouldn’t be much function. With doors and windows, there is function. 6 Common Proteins: 1. Ion channel-‐ a protein that allows a certain ion to enter/leave the cell. They are chemical-‐specific. Example: Like the door of the classroom. -‐size -‐geometrical orientation -‐type of chemical …is important 2. Transport proteins/carrier proteins-‐ take a chemical from the outside ▯ pulls it inside. This is how we get glucose into the cell. Key: you have to activate the protein aka insulin. 3. Receptors-‐ Designed to receive another molecule aka “attachment.” If the chemical attaches to this receptor, certain things will happen inside the cell. Example: wall outlet, the shape and orientation of the plug/outlet matter. 4. Enzymes-‐ Act as a catalyst ▯ which activates chemical reactions @ lower temperatures. 98.6 degrees. 5. Cell Identity Marker-‐ Recognition between own cell & bacteria. Each person has a unique type of marker, helps with immunity. Histocompatibility-‐Measures how compatible the tissue is as a marker with other tissues. Example: the room number of the classroom. 6. Linking/Anchoring proteins-‐ In cell membrane, helps link one cell to the other. Example: what links rail cars together. If one moves they all move. Basement membranes ▯ linked to epithelial tissue. *These are defective in cancer cells, so they spread easier. Membrane Transport (Biotransport) Biotransport-‐ the movement of molecules (chemicals) into or out of the cell. Have to choose: -‐When -‐Where -‐How much …chemicals get in or out. This must be controlled. This is called selective permeability-‐ the control and regulation of chemicals entering or leaving the cell. Biotransport-‐ well use the most effective way to transport the chemical. Example: We decide whether to walk, drive, or take a plane to get to a destination. Passive transport-‐ 1. Do not use energy, or ATP. ATP=adenosinetriphosphate 2. Move from a high concentration to a lower concentration of molecules within a specified area. This is called with the gradient. Active transport-‐ Uses work. 1. Do use energy/ ATP 2. Move from a high concentration to a lower concentration of molecules within a specified area. This is called against the gradient.
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