KIN 312 Wu Fall 2016 week 8 Attention Lecture Notes
KIN 312 Wu Fall 2016 week 8 Attention Lecture Notes KIN 312
Long Beach State
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natalie Wong on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to KIN 312 at California State University Long Beach taught by Wilbur Wu in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Motor Control in Kinesiology at California State University Long Beach.
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Date Created: 10/14/16
KIN 312: Fall 2016 – Week 8 Natalie Wong ***Notes derived from Dr. Wu’s lecture PPT “Attention” I. Attention Defined o Attention (attn.) = the engagement in perceptual, cognitive, and motor activities before, during and after performing motor skills -Perceptual hearing, seeing, smelling, putting meaning behind attn. -Cognitive how we are thinking about attn. o Conscious Attn. = conscious engagement in attention activities -Verbally describe activity : · Perceptually – “I am looking at…” · Cognitively – “I am thinking about…” · Motor – “I am moving…” o NonConscious Attn. = nonconscious engagement in attention activities -When you cannot or have difficulty describing an activity -Skill performance shows evidence of attn. activity automaticity · Automaticity = don’t need to consciously think about activity (ex: walking) · Even performers who are elite in an activity might not be able to teach the said activity due to nonconscious attn. II. Limited Attn. Capacity o Key factor that influences the amount of activities people can perform simultaneously is the limits of their attn. capacity o Central Resource Theories = Group of theories developed to describe and explain this human limitation; one “supply store” (central resource) from which all attn. activities must be obtained -Views differ whether we have fixed or flexible amounts of attn. that we can give to an attn. demanding activity · Fixed = attn. capacity is always the same amount · Flexible = attn. capacity varies from situation to situation 1) Kahneman’s Flexible Central Resource Theory of Attention ~ Arousal level = excitability of person’s emotional, mental, and physiological states Influences amount of capacity available for a specific performance situation Max attn. capacity = optimum arousal level for situation ~ ArousalPerformance Relationship *Optimal arousal High level for optimal Performance performance Level Low Very Low Very High KIN 312: Fall 2016 – Week 8 Natalie Wong Arousal Level Factors that influence our allocation of attention Task demands for attention Task specific Change with learning Enduring dispositions Involuntary allocation – Cocktail Party Phenomenon (Ex: hear name called from across the room stop paying attn. to conversation) Momentary intentions Intentional allocation Arousal level influences available capacity influences attn. allocation policy (enduring dispositions or momentary intentions) influences the amount of demand of attn. a task requires 2) Multiple Resources Theory ~ Resources are available from 3 sources: Input/output modalities (vision, speech) Stages of info processing (perception, memory encoding, response output) Codes of processing information (verbal and spatial codes) ~ Current research in favor of this theory, but Kahneman’s theory is still valueable. o When can limited attn. capacity be an advantage for performing a skill? -Free thrower example fans are trying to distract the free thrower – an experienced player will not max out his attn. on the throw, so he has leftover attn. III. A Procedure to Assess Attn. Demands of Performing a Motor Skill o Dual Task Procedure -Person performs two tasks simultaneously labeled as primary (i.e. walking) and secondary (i.e. talking with someone) -Person is instructed to maintain normal performance on primary task -Secondary task performance assessed to determine attn. demands of the primary task -Ex: Juggling while playing DDR juggling is considered the primary task because its automatic due to the same pattern recurring within the task, and DDR is secondary because the pattern of feet movements is constantly changing. o Examples of Research Using the DualTask Procedure -Experiment by Geurts and Mulder (1994) “Is attn. demanded to maintain static standing balance?” – compared unilateral leg amputees with new prosthesis to nonamputees · Procedure: ~ Primary task = standing balance for 30 sec. ~ Secondary task = verbally report if addition problem sum correct or incorrect · Results: ~ Amputees had greater sways/balance checks and more mathematical errors ~ Nonamputees showed no body sway change · Conclusion: KIN 312: Fall 2016 – Week 8 Natalie Wong ~ Yes, attn. is required to maintain balance, especially for some patient populations -Experiment by Prezuhy and Etnier (2001) “Do attn. demands differ for performing various parts of a skill?” · Procedure: ~ Primary task = pitching a horseshoe ~ Secondary task = when a tone is heard, subject has to push a response button held in the nonthrowing hand – RT taken at beginning, maximum back swing, and just before release · Results: ~ RT was highest at the beginning and just before the release · Conclusion: ~ Within one action, attn. amounts differ -Cell Phone use while driving by Strayer and Johnson (2001) · When a participant engaged in cell phone conversations during a simulated driving task: ~ Missed two times more traffic signals ~ RT for responding to a red light was significantly slower than when not using a cell phone ~ No statistical difference between handheld and handsfree cell phone use ~ Missed more traffic signals and had slower RT than when listening to the radio or to a book audiotape · Cell phone use when driving a car: ~ Not legal in several countries and some parts of US ~ Quadruples risk of having an accident ~ Driving a car is a motor skill – we didn’t practice using our phones while taking driver’s ed…