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BIOS Week 8

by: Kaitlyn Meinzer

BIOS Week 8 BIOS 1000

Kaitlyn Meinzer

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Animal Diversity
Animal Diversity
Patrick Hassett
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlyn Meinzer on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOS 1000 at Ohio University taught by Patrick Hassett in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views.


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Date Created: 10/14/16
• Arthropods ‣ Spiders ‣ Scorpions ‣ Crustaceans ‣ Insects ◦ Arthropod body plan ‣ Segmented body ‣ Jointed legs, often highly modified ‣ Exoskeleton with cuticle containing chitin ◦ Early arthropods: Trilobites ◦ Chelicerates (horseshoe, crabs, spiders, and scorpions) ◦ Arthropod Phylogeny ‣ Grouped by primary feeding appendage ◦ Arthropod cuticle ‣ Made up of three layers ‣ Must be shed for the animal to grow ‣ Molting Cycle • Old cuticle separates • New cuticle is secreted layer by layer • Old cuticle is dissolved and reabsorbed • Old cuticle is discarded • Animal swells with water, new cuticle stretches out • Cuticles harden, animals expels water, and slowly grows into new cuticle ◦ Trilobite ‣ Every leg looks the same ‣ Primitive anthropoids show little specialization ◦ Chelicerates ‣ Horseshoe Crabs • Arachnids (scorpions and spiders) • Common Features • 6 pairs of appendages ◦ First comes a pair of chelicera (often used for sucking fluid from prey, in spiders connected to poison glands) ◦ Next come a pair of pedipalps (sensory or feeding function, may be claw-like) ◦ 4 pairs of walking legs • 4 species ◦ One along the US Atlantic coast, the other in the tropical Pacific • Have mass spawning in spring, laying eggs under the sand at the high tide mark, an important food source for migrating birds • Horseshoe crab blood ◦ Extremely sensitive to bacteria ◦ Used in pharmaceutical industry to detect bacteria contamination in medicines ◦ Several million horseshoe crabs are bled and returned to the sea each year ◦ Arachnids ‣ Scorpions, siders, ticks, mites ‣ Scorpions • Whip scorpion or Vinegaroon • No venom, but can spray a mist that is 70% acetic acid (or vinegar) ‣ Spiders • Most have 8 eyes ◦ Forward binocular vision and side vision ◦ Despite many eyes, most spiders have poor eyesight, relying on tech, vibrations, and smells ‣ Exceptions are hunting spiders • Toxins ◦ Neurotoxic- paralyzes nervous system ◦ Hemolytic- attacks tissues ◦ All spiders posses venom and can bite, few are dangerous, and very few fatalities occur among humans ‣ Ticks • Bod feeding external parasites • Ticks often attach to hosts by 'questing', hold only blade of grass with hand legs and wait for host • Once embedded in skin they engorge with blood • Drop off and mold (if young) or lay eggs on ground, they start cycle over • Transmit many diseases ◦ Lyme disease ‣ Spread by deer ticks, becoming more common in US ◦ Rocky mountain spotted fever ◦ And many others • Tick Control ◦ Pesticides ineffective ◦ Guinea fowl willed on 'questing' ticks ‣ Mites • Are everywhere • Very diverse, both free-living and parasites • Follicle mites live in hair follicle, particular base of eyelashes, about 1 in 3 chance that you have them • Dust mites, found in carpets and bedding, are common allergen (the feces, not the mite) • Mange is skin disease caused by mites • Crustaceans ◦ Dominate the oceans ◦ Crustacean features ‣ Head and front part often covered by carapace, a hard shell-like covering ‣ Pair of antennae for sensing environment ‣ Each segment with appendages modified for walking,swimming, and feeding ‣ Very common in oceans, though there are a few land species too ◦ Molting ‣ Indirect Development, young stages appear different from adult ‣ each stage has numerous molts ‣ Direct Development, young hatch with similar appearance to adult ◦ Primitive Crustaceans ‣ Have few specialization appendages ‣ Include brine shrimp (sea monkeys) and water fleas ‣ Bring Shrimp, Artemia • Repetitive appendages- primitive • Typically live in water 2-3X as salty as seawater • Important aquaculture food ‣ Cyst Harvest • Cysts are eggs that are dormant (non-growing) and float on water • Boats harvest cysts, dry and can them for use as aquaculture feed • Dry cysts can remain viable for decades ‣ Water Fleas (Cladocerans) • Parthenogenic life cycle ◦ All females for several generations ‣ Daphnia Lumholtzi • Have long protective spines ‣ Barnacles • Common on rocks in marine intertidal zone • Will attach to almost any surface • Filter feed on microscopic algae ◦ Have feeding appendage • Are preyed on by sea stars and snails • Copepods ◦ Most abundant group of marine arthropods ◦ Some have thick cuticles and short, stubby antennae, live in sediment ◦ Others are streamlines, swim in plankton ◦ Hairs on antennae have mechanoreceptors as well as chemoreceptors ◦ Also many parasitic species with bizarre shapes ◦ Copepod Mouthparts ‣ Filter feeding ◦ Some have large fat reserves to survive periods of low food, making them a valuable food resource for predators • Amphipod ◦ Are flattened side to side ◦ They are important scavengers ◦ Can be found in high abundances in a broad range of habitats • Isopods ◦ Scavengers ◦ Flattened top to bottom • Decapods ◦ Lobster ‣ Thorax and abdomen about the same length ‣ Despite heavy fishing pressure, lobster harvests have boomed over the last 20 years ‣ One likely factor is the loss of cod, a large predatory bottom fish, due to overfishing ‣ Are aggressive predators and scavengers ‣ In captivity they may also be cannibals, so they have never been successful in aquaculture ‣ Crabs have short abdomens, often tucked under body ‣ Females often hold eggs between abdomen and body, so have wide abdomen ◦ Shrimp ‣ Longer abdomen ◦ Crabs (hermit, coconut, blue) ‣ Swimming crab • (note their hindmost legs) ‣ Hermit Crab • Uses mollusk shell for defense ‣ Decorator Crab • Camouflages shell with pieces of seaweed, sponge, anemones • Krill ◦ Euphausids ◦ Antarctic krill may be found in vast swarms that are miles wide ◦ Estimated biomass at 500 million tons ◦ Found throughout the worlds oceans


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