NURB 331: Acquired problems of the newborn
NURB 331: Acquired problems of the newborn NURB 331
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsey Forbeck on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NURB 331 at University of Indianapolis taught by Professor Rairdon in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Lifespan 1 in NURSING at University of Indianapolis.
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Date Created: 10/14/16
NURB 331: Lifespan 1 Acquired Problems of the Newborn Acquired problems refer to those conditions resulting from environmental factors rather than genetic circumstances o Birth trauma o Infant and diabetic mother o Neonatal infections o Effects of maternal substance abuse Infections o Sepsis Neonatorum Newborns up to age one are susceptible to this infection These infections are caused by organisms that do not cause significant disease in older children It can spread throughout their blood stream Cultures o Infants who have a history of exposure to infection should have a culture ASAO o OBTAIN CULTURES BEFORE ANTIBIOTIC THERAPY HAS BEGUN o You’ll need the blood cultures from different sites WBC o Indication for sepsis of a baby is low white blood cell count o Low neuropils and high band (immature WBC) could indicate infection Signs of sepsis in a newborn o Behavioral changes o Low temp o Rash o Tachypnea o High heart rate low blood pressure Toxoplasmosis o Defined: systemic usually asymptomatic illness that is caused by protozoan parasite known as toxoplasma gondii o The newborn could come out fine then all of a sudden this comes about o Acquired by: Ingestion of tissue cyst stage from undercooked meat or other animal products Ingestion or inhalation of the oocyst stage excreted in feline feces or contaminated soil Trans placental or blood-product transmission o Symptoms of toxoplasmosis of the newborn Seizures Mental retardation Blindness Gonorrhea o May invade mucosal surfaces such as conjunctiva, rectal mucosa, and pharynx o Eye prophylaxis is administered to prevent ophthalmic neonatorum Rubella o Spread by oral droplets and transplacentally o Most common anomalies Congenital cataracts Patent ductus arteriosus Sensorineural deafness Meningocephalitis o Contagious until they are 12 months’ old Cytomegalovirus infection o Member of herpes virus family o Commonly asymptomatic o Typical rash o Enlarged liver o Treatment is reserved for severe cases because of the enlarged liver Herpes Simplex virus o Transmission occurs by direct contact of virus onto susceptible mucosal tissues or onto broken skin o Without treatment, half of babies’ die Substance Abuse o Tobacco Infants of mothers who smoke: Lower birth weight Higher incidence of perinatal death Carbon dioxide and nicotine decrease availability of 02 to maternal and fetal tissues o Alcohol Considered one of the primary teratogens Ethanol freely crosses placental barrier Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) Includes series of malformations frequently found in infants exposed to alcohol in utero o Amphetamines These babies are at greater risk of being born premature Common abnormalities: Small head circumference Cleft palate Heart deformities They may go through symptoms of withdrawal CANNOT breast feed because the drug goes into breast milk o Neonatal abstinence syndrome Group of symptoms associated with drug withdrawal in the neonate Urine or meconium labs will be drawn to find out what drug the mother may have been on Signs and symptoms GI: Poor feeding Vomiting Regurgitation Diarrhea Excessive sucking (because they are uncomfortable) Signs and symptoms CNS: Irritability Tremors Shrill cry Incessant crying Little sleep Convulsions Hyperactivity Signs and symptoms of metabolic, vasomotor, respiratory Nasal congestion Tachypnea Sweaty Frequent yawning Increase rr greater than 60 Fever o Signs of infant distress Gaze aversion Yawning Sneezing Hiccoughs Arching Splaying of fingers Hemolytic Disorders o Occurs when blood groups of mother and newborn are different o Most common: Rh incompatibility ABO incompatibility PKU- Phenylketonuria o Most common metabolic error o It is the breakdown of proteins o Results with accumulation of phenylalanine o Excessive accumulation in brain results in mental retardation
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