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Bio 129 Chapter 7

by: Bennett Notetaker

Bio 129 Chapter 7 BIO 129LEC

Marketplace > University at Buffalo > BIO 129LEC > Bio 129 Chapter 7
Bennett Notetaker

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Notes that cover all of chapter 7. All material is fair game for the next test
Perspectives In Human Bio
Almon, R R
Class Notes
nutrients, vitmains, glucagon
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bennett Notetaker on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 129LEC at University at Buffalo taught by Almon, R R in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.


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Date Created: 10/14/16
Bio 129 Chapter 7 10/10/2016 ▯ Nutrients  Are molecules and minerals required by the body from the outside world EXCEPT O2 and H2O o Minerals- Ca++, Fe++, Na+, Cl-, Mg++, K+, l- o Vitamins o Amino acids (proteins)- digested and taken into circulation o Fats- broken down and taken into circulation o Sugar (carbohydrates)- what your brain runs on ▯ Metabolism  This is how the body uses nutrients  Balance between anabolism(making things aka molecules) and catabolism(breaking down molecules)  Energy metabolism is used to maintain order ▯ Minerals  Elements that the body picks up and uses for a variety of purposes associated with electrical charge o Cl has an extra electron around it which makes it negative ▯ Electrical Potentials  Requires the constant input of energy to be maintained o Causes muscle contraction and brain function (moving ions) ▯ Calcium  Stored in the bone o Mother nature will de-mineralize bones if you don’t have enough calcium  It’s an intracellular activator o Enzyme in cytoplasm, that breaks down ATP so energy is released  Only selectivity allowed inside cells ▯ Iron  Fe++, Fe+++ are very good at moving electrons around  The body stores all that it can get in the liver  Hemoglobin contains oxidized iron (Fe++) which provides the basis for oxygen binding to hemoglobin  This is why your blood is the color of rust o Electrons go through outer shell of iron and then go through positive side of battery ▯ Phosphorus  Necessary in circulation  Uses o Turning proteins on and of o Glue that holds DNA together o Provides bone structure along with calcium o Condensed energy (ATP) ▯ Other Minerals  Iodine=thyroid hormone  Zinc=insulin  Magnesium=important for heart and brain  Copper  Also drugs (lithium-used for anti-depressant) ▯ Vitamins  Natural drugs (regulate or facilitate)  Organic molecules (not digestive)  Two classes o Water soluble (dissolves in water/charged molecules) o Fat soluble (liver makes proteins to carry them around the body) ▯ Water Soluble  B complex- group of vitamins involved in energy reactions  C- vitamin involved in maintaining tissue integrity  Digestion “in” and kidney “out” (like minerals) Fat Soluble (A D K E)  Not soluble in water of the blood so the liver must make special proteins to carry them around the body  A- stored in liver, enters the body through digestion, important for vision, too much is toxic  D- stored in liver, enters through digestion and is made by the skin is response to the sun, too much is toxic ( important for calcium take up)  K- enters through digestion and is made by bacteria living in the large intestine, necessary for blood clotting  E- enters through digestion (antioxidant) ▯ Drug Problems  Birth control pills and alcohol increase liver metabolism and decrease absorption of B complex vitamins  Diuretics cause loss of water soluble vitamins o Reduces ions in kidney which lowers blood pressure  Antibiotics can kill bacteria in the large intestine that make vitamin K ▯ Nutrient Storage  In storage in times of feast and out of storage in times of famine  Feast and famine happen everyday (breakfast)  Most cells store some sugar for their own use  The brain does not store ANY nutrients  The liver stores sugar for the brain  The musculature stores amino acids for the body  Fat stores fat for the body ▯ Carbohydrates/Sugar  The most valuable source of energy b/c it is the only substrate which can provide some energy without oxygen  Only fuel for the brain o Sugar in circulation must be just right  Full use yields CO2 and H2O  Another use is structure and signaling, glycoproteins o Signaling putting sugar on a protein, liver uses to tell whether they’ve been damaged or not ▯ Why Glucose is so Important  Aerobic (36 ATP) only breathing hard during exercise  Anerobic (2 ATP) breathing hard afterwards, no enough oxygen to muscles ▯ Proteins/Amino Acids  Amino acids can be used for energy  C, H, O, N (S)  The N is in the form of NH3 (ammonia) this is toxic  The NH3 is detoxified by the liver (urea) and removed by the kidney  Musculature is major amino acid storage ▯ Fat  The largest source of stored energy  How long you live when subjected to starvation depends on how much fat you have  Lightweight and provides insulation  Requires O2 to get any energy  Tonic (red) muscles use a lot of fat o Red b/c they have a unique protein that binds up oxygen so that you can use fat for energy ▯ Hormones  Insulin  Glucagon  Glucocorticoids  Adrenalin  Main ones that are critical because they control the in out of storage  Control the storage and removal from storage of sugar, amino acids, and fat ▯ Insulin: The Feast Hormone  A protein made by the beta islet cells of the pancreas  The signal for release is excess sugar and amino acids in circulation after you eat  Almost all cells have receptors for insulin  Insulin receptors are proteins in the surface membrane of the cell o Sets up chain reaction that creates glucose and amino acid ports  When insulin binds to the insulin receptor on a cell, sugar and amino acid channels are opened and the cell takes these nutrients up o Permission to take up glucose  The single exception is nerve cells, they can take up nutrients anytime they want  All other cells need permission (insulin) to take up nutrients ▯ Glucagon st  The 1 stage famine hormone  A protein made and released by the alpha islet cells of the pancreas  The signal is “not enough sugar in circulation”  Only liver cells have glucagon receptors in their surface membrane  Directs liver cells to breakdown glycogen into sugar release the sugar into circulation ▯ Glucocorticoids  The second-stage famine hormone o Released by adrenal gland  The liver can only store enough sugar to feed your brain for 12-18 hours  Depleted sugar in the liver is replaced by making more sugar out of amino acid carbon from the musculature  Steroid hormones made by the adrenal gland  The signal is adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland  The brain directs the pituitary to release ACTH  The signals for the brain are many diverse including stress and infection this is a daily pattern  Made from progesterone which is made from cholesterol  Shift the muscle into net degradation of proteins  Directs the liver to make proteins necessary for sugar and urea synthesis  Suppresses the immune system  Causes muscle and other tissues to be insulin resistant  Mobilizes fat to feed other tissues ▯ Adrenalin  Allows access to emergency energy  Sympathetic nervous system by way of nerves directs the adrenal gland to release adrenaline  Almost all cells have adrenalin receptors on their surface  Acute stress response  Does many things related to energy o Directs liver to breakdown glycogen for its own use o Directs muscle to breakdown glycogen for its own use o Directs fat to release fat o Changes blood flow to direct the delivery to brain, heart, skeletal muscle ▯ Many Drugs influence metabolism  Cofee, tea  All “speed” like nicotine and cocaine  Alcohol ▯ ▯ ▯


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