Bio 129 Chapter 7
Popular in Perspectives In Human Bio
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Department
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bennett Notetaker on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 129LEC at University at Buffalo taught by Almon, R R in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.
Reviews for Bio 129 Chapter 7
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/14/16
Bio 129 Chapter 7 10/10/2016 ▯ Nutrients Are molecules and minerals required by the body from the outside world EXCEPT O2 and H2O o Minerals- Ca++, Fe++, Na+, Cl-, Mg++, K+, l- o Vitamins o Amino acids (proteins)- digested and taken into circulation o Fats- broken down and taken into circulation o Sugar (carbohydrates)- what your brain runs on ▯ Metabolism This is how the body uses nutrients Balance between anabolism(making things aka molecules) and catabolism(breaking down molecules) Energy metabolism is used to maintain order ▯ Minerals Elements that the body picks up and uses for a variety of purposes associated with electrical charge o Cl has an extra electron around it which makes it negative ▯ Electrical Potentials Requires the constant input of energy to be maintained o Causes muscle contraction and brain function (moving ions) ▯ Calcium Stored in the bone o Mother nature will de-mineralize bones if you don’t have enough calcium It’s an intracellular activator o Enzyme in cytoplasm, that breaks down ATP so energy is released Only selectivity allowed inside cells ▯ Iron Fe++, Fe+++ are very good at moving electrons around The body stores all that it can get in the liver Hemoglobin contains oxidized iron (Fe++) which provides the basis for oxygen binding to hemoglobin This is why your blood is the color of rust o Electrons go through outer shell of iron and then go through positive side of battery ▯ Phosphorus Necessary in circulation Uses o Turning proteins on and of o Glue that holds DNA together o Provides bone structure along with calcium o Condensed energy (ATP) ▯ Other Minerals Iodine=thyroid hormone Zinc=insulin Magnesium=important for heart and brain Copper Also drugs (lithium-used for anti-depressant) ▯ Vitamins Natural drugs (regulate or facilitate) Organic molecules (not digestive) Two classes o Water soluble (dissolves in water/charged molecules) o Fat soluble (liver makes proteins to carry them around the body) ▯ Water Soluble B complex- group of vitamins involved in energy reactions C- vitamin involved in maintaining tissue integrity Digestion “in” and kidney “out” (like minerals) Fat Soluble (A D K E) Not soluble in water of the blood so the liver must make special proteins to carry them around the body A- stored in liver, enters the body through digestion, important for vision, too much is toxic D- stored in liver, enters through digestion and is made by the skin is response to the sun, too much is toxic ( important for calcium take up) K- enters through digestion and is made by bacteria living in the large intestine, necessary for blood clotting E- enters through digestion (antioxidant) ▯ Drug Problems Birth control pills and alcohol increase liver metabolism and decrease absorption of B complex vitamins Diuretics cause loss of water soluble vitamins o Reduces ions in kidney which lowers blood pressure Antibiotics can kill bacteria in the large intestine that make vitamin K ▯ Nutrient Storage In storage in times of feast and out of storage in times of famine Feast and famine happen everyday (breakfast) Most cells store some sugar for their own use The brain does not store ANY nutrients The liver stores sugar for the brain The musculature stores amino acids for the body Fat stores fat for the body ▯ Carbohydrates/Sugar The most valuable source of energy b/c it is the only substrate which can provide some energy without oxygen Only fuel for the brain o Sugar in circulation must be just right Full use yields CO2 and H2O Another use is structure and signaling, glycoproteins o Signaling putting sugar on a protein, liver uses to tell whether they’ve been damaged or not ▯ Why Glucose is so Important Aerobic (36 ATP) only breathing hard during exercise Anerobic (2 ATP) breathing hard afterwards, no enough oxygen to muscles ▯ Proteins/Amino Acids Amino acids can be used for energy C, H, O, N (S) The N is in the form of NH3 (ammonia) this is toxic The NH3 is detoxified by the liver (urea) and removed by the kidney Musculature is major amino acid storage ▯ Fat The largest source of stored energy How long you live when subjected to starvation depends on how much fat you have Lightweight and provides insulation Requires O2 to get any energy Tonic (red) muscles use a lot of fat o Red b/c they have a unique protein that binds up oxygen so that you can use fat for energy ▯ Hormones Insulin Glucagon Glucocorticoids Adrenalin Main ones that are critical because they control the in out of storage Control the storage and removal from storage of sugar, amino acids, and fat ▯ Insulin: The Feast Hormone A protein made by the beta islet cells of the pancreas The signal for release is excess sugar and amino acids in circulation after you eat Almost all cells have receptors for insulin Insulin receptors are proteins in the surface membrane of the cell o Sets up chain reaction that creates glucose and amino acid ports When insulin binds to the insulin receptor on a cell, sugar and amino acid channels are opened and the cell takes these nutrients up o Permission to take up glucose The single exception is nerve cells, they can take up nutrients anytime they want All other cells need permission (insulin) to take up nutrients ▯ Glucagon st The 1 stage famine hormone A protein made and released by the alpha islet cells of the pancreas The signal is “not enough sugar in circulation” Only liver cells have glucagon receptors in their surface membrane Directs liver cells to breakdown glycogen into sugar release the sugar into circulation ▯ Glucocorticoids The second-stage famine hormone o Released by adrenal gland The liver can only store enough sugar to feed your brain for 12-18 hours Depleted sugar in the liver is replaced by making more sugar out of amino acid carbon from the musculature Steroid hormones made by the adrenal gland The signal is adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland The brain directs the pituitary to release ACTH The signals for the brain are many diverse including stress and infection this is a daily pattern Made from progesterone which is made from cholesterol Shift the muscle into net degradation of proteins Directs the liver to make proteins necessary for sugar and urea synthesis Suppresses the immune system Causes muscle and other tissues to be insulin resistant Mobilizes fat to feed other tissues ▯ Adrenalin Allows access to emergency energy Sympathetic nervous system by way of nerves directs the adrenal gland to release adrenaline Almost all cells have adrenalin receptors on their surface Acute stress response Does many things related to energy o Directs liver to breakdown glycogen for its own use o Directs muscle to breakdown glycogen for its own use o Directs fat to release fat o Changes blood flow to direct the delivery to brain, heart, skeletal muscle ▯ Many Drugs influence metabolism Cofee, tea All “speed” like nicotine and cocaine Alcohol ▯ ▯ ▯
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'