Learning 2, Week 6 notes
Learning 2, Week 6 notes PSY 101301
Popular in Intro to General Psychology
Popular in Psychology
This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brooklyn Lee on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 101301 at Texas Woman's University taught by Dr. Michael Morris in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Intro to General Psychology in Psychology at Texas Woman's University.
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Date Created: 10/14/16
Learning II Classical vs. Operant Russians vs. Americans • American scientists reaction • Problems with classical conditioning – Only explains reflexes, automatic responses – Stimulus precedes response only E. Thorndike B. F. Skinner Operant Conditioning • Edward Thorndike – Puzzle Box • Placed cats in a puzzle box with a food reward outside the box • Recorded the amount of time it took the cats to figure out how to escape – Law of effect: Rewarded behaviors are likely to recur, but punished behaviors less likely to be repeated Time to escape Operant Conditioning • B.F . Skinner Recording – Skinner box (rats) device Bar or lever that an animal presses or key or disc that an animal pecks Food/water dispenser to dispense the reward Operant Conditioning Operant – associating a voluntary response and a consequence. – Behavior-outcome relationship – Punishment-reward – Strengthened if followed by reinforcement or Diminished if followed by punishment Operant Conditioning Reinforcement (Reward): increases the probability that the preceding action will be repeated in the future Punishment: decreases the probability that the preceding action will be repeated in the future Positive: adding something to change behavior Negative: removing something to change behavior Operant Conditioning – Positive reinforcement: adding something to increase a behavior Ex. Getting a raise in salary for good performance – Negative reinforcement: taking away something to increase a behavior Ex. Removing a stone in your shoe to keep walking – Positive punishment: adding something to decrease a behavior Ex. Getting a ticket for speeding – Negative punishment: taking away something to decrease a behavior Ex. Grounding a teen for breaking curfew Schedules of Reinforcement • Continuous – always reinforcing the behavior • Partial – sometimes reinforcing the behavior – When reinforce? – Reinforce according to what? When reinforcing? Consistent spacing Changing spacing Fixed Variable to: # of Ratio Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio responses Fixed Interval Variable Interval Reinforce Accordingenterval Schedules of Reinforcement – Fixed-ratio schedule: Reinforce behavior after a set number of responses, fast learning, fast extinction – Variable-ratio schedule: Reinforce behavior after an unpredictable number of responses, fast learning, slower extinction (slot machine…) – Fixed-interval schedule: Reinforce first response after a fixed time period – Variable-interval schedule: Reinforce first response after varying time intervals Operant Conditioning • Shaping: Learning that results from the reinforcement of successive steps to a final desired behavior Observational Learning • Observational learning: Condition in which learning takes place by watching the actions of others • Albert Bandura (1925-) studied aggressive observational learning using the Bobo doll experiment – Children imitated adult behaviors and were sensitive to the consequences of their aggressive behavior Implicit Learning • Implicit learning: Learning that takes place largely without awareness of the process or the products of information acquisition – Classical conditioning is an example – Procedural learning Memory Learning vs. memory Learning = “A relatively enduring and adaptive change in behavior as a result of experience” Memory = retention of learned information Distinctions between different types of memory Declarative vs. non-declarative (explicit vs. implicit) •Semantic, episodic, and procedural memory Short-term, long-term, and working memory Memory: Models • Continuous cycle of encoding, storing, and retrieving information Unattended Unrehearsed Some information information is information is is lost lost lost over time Unconscious processing Attention to importantintenance rehearsal Sensory input or novel information Encoding Retrieving Encoding Storage Information Processing • Encoding: getting information (perceptions, thoughts, feelings) into memory • Storage: retaining information in memory over time – Sensory – Short-term – Long-term • Retrieval: recalling or using previously encoded and stored information; getting the information back out – Forgetting – Reconstructing Storage • Sensory memory: storage that holds sensory information for a few seconds or less • Short-term memory: storage that holds information more than few seconds, but less than a minute. • Long-term memory: storage that holds information for hours, days, weeks; no known capacity Short-term memory • Rehearsal: keeping information in short-term memory by mentally repeating it • Chunking: combining small pieces of information into larger clusters that are more easily held in short-term memory • Working memory: active maintenance of information in short-term memory
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