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Physics weeks 4-6

by: Catherine Carter

Physics weeks 4-6 PHY 107

Marketplace > University at Buffalo > Physics > PHY 107 > Physics weeks 4 6
Catherine Carter

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About this Document

These notes cover the last 3 chapters.
General Physics 1
Dr. Kharchilava
Class Notes
Calculus, Physics
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Catherine Carter on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHY 107 at University at Buffalo taught by Dr. Kharchilava in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see General Physics 1 in Physics at University at Buffalo.


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Date Created: 10/14/16
 Friction ­ static (not moving) and kinetic (moving), you have to overcome the static  friction in order for an object to move  o   the static friction will always be greater than the kinetic friction  o if the  two surfaces do not move with each other then it’s the static friction that  balances the force applied o the magnitude of the force of static friction varies from 0 to the maximum value  ,      is the coefficient of static friction o if the applied force exceeds the maximum force of static friction then the object  will start to slide  o once it is sliding the frictional force is the kinetic friction the magnitude is equal  to  ,     is the coefficient of kinetic friction  o friction is always parallel to the surfaces and opposes the motion or the attempted  motion  o the coefficient of kinetic friction does not depend on speed  Drag Force – when an object moves through a fluid (liquid or gas) it experiences an  opposing force called drag  o   C is a drag coefficient constant, the weird p is the density of the  surrounding fluid, A is the effective cross sectional area of the moving object, and v is the object’s speed o the terminal speed can be found by   For Centripetal Force:    so  (referring to centripetal force), Tension of something swung around in a circle:  , the frictional force on a circle is also the centripetal force   In dynamics, you should always start with a force diagram: o make a simple sketch of the system o choose the body to be isolated o add convenient coordinate system  o identify all forces that act on the body and label them on the diagram   describing a moving object in terms of energy uses scalars instead of vectors  Kinetic energy is: o A joule is:   Work is the force times the distance  o If energy is transferred to the object (kinetic energy increases) then work was  done on the object, if energy is transferred from the object then work was done by the object  o If there is an angle that the force is in then you have to multiply the force vector  by the distance vector or multiply the magnitude of the force by the distance times cos or sin of the angle  o The work­kinetic energy theorem:  o For the work done by a force lifting an object:  o For a variable force:   or    also   (basically the area under the curve created by force distance  graph)  with spring forces, the spring exerts a force in the opposite direction  Hooke’s Law:   k is the spring constant o Work done by spring force:   Work can all be done in three dimensions as well but, it has to be broken up into  components   Power is the work done over time   instantaneous power is the derivative of this  or  o The SI unit for power is the watt, 1J/second, a commonly used one is horsepower  which is 1hp= 746W, the kilowatt­hour (kWh) is the work performed by an  engine P=1000W in 1 hour (=3.60x10^6J) o Power by a constant force:   potential energy is a type of energy associated with the interaction between objects  the change in gravitational potential energy (U) is   the potential energy of a spring is the same   a conservative force can transfer energy from kinetic to potential and vice versa, non­ conservative can only transfer it to one (like kinetic energy to heat (from friction))  The path is independent of the conservation of the force. for a round trip:   potential energy  o of a spring   mechanical energy is conserved when:    o mechanical energy/kinetic/potential energy can also be found using this when it is not set to 0   Force is the negative derivative of potential energy   Kinetic energy is always positive so: o  (is better seen on a graph ) o For the U versus x curve: regions where F=0 is a region of neutral equilibrium,  minima are places of stable equilibrium (if you displace the particle a little to the  left or right it will return to the equilibrium point), and maxima are places of  unstable equilibrium (if you displace the particle a little to the left or the right it  will get farther away from the equilibrium point) o  for thermal energy  o When there is a frictional force  o There is always a conservation of energy, the total energy of a system can change  only by amounts of energy that are transferred to or from the system, it does not  change for an isolated system    if work is done on the system  If the system is isolated:  h  d=  for the distance travelled after a thing goes down a ramp  μs


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