His 102, Week 8, Ch 22 Notes
His 102, Week 8, Ch 22 Notes His 102
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tessa Peak on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to His 102 at Northern Virginia Community College taught by Dr. Dluger in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see History of Western Civilization II in History at Northern Virginia Community College.
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Date Created: 10/14/16
His 102 Notes Ch. 22: Imperialism and Colonialism, 18701914 A. Imperialism a. The process of extending one state’s control over another b. Many forms sometimes exercised by direct rule, where the colonizing nation annexed territories outright and subjugated the people living there; indirect rule where conquering European nations reached agreements with local leaders and governed through them; informal imperialism where stronger states allowed weaker states to maintain independence while reducing sovereignty c. Both formal and informal imperialism expanded dramatically in nineteenth century d. “Scramble for Africa” formal imperialism where France, Britain, Germany, the Netherlands, Russia, and the US colonized about one quarter of the world’s land surface; same states extended informal empire in China and Turkey, across South and East Asia, and into Central and South America e. Nineteenth century empires rose against backdrop of industrialization, liberal revolution, and rise of nationstates; imperialists justified projects by saying their investment in infrastructure and social reforms would fulfill Europe’s mission to bring civilization to the rest of the world f. Resistance of colonized people did as much to shape history of colonialism as did ambitious plans of colonizers g. Nineteenthcentury imperialism involved less independent entrepreneurial activity by merchants and traders and more settlement and discipline B. Imperialism in South Asia a. By midnineteenth century, India was focal point of Britain’s newly expanded global power; involved changing tactics and forms of rule (until now, British territories in India under control of British East India Company) b. Indirect rule meant finding indigenous collaborators and maintaining good will c. British policy shifted between two poles: one group wanted to “Westernize” India, while another believed it safer and more practical to defer to local culture d. From Mutiny to Rebellion i. East India Company’s rule often met resistance and protest; badly shaken by revolt of Indian soldiers in the British army ii. Causes of mutiny began by refusing to use rifle cartridges greased with pork fat, but involved deeper social, economic, and political grievances iii. After mutiny, British compelled to reorganize Indian empire; East India Company was abolished, replaced by the British crown iv. British also reorganized military and tried to change relations among soldiers; British sought to rule through Indian upper classes rather than in opposition to them v. India was Britain’s largest export market and mattered enormously to Britain’s balance of payments as well as human resources of India vi. British practice of indirect rule sought to create Indian elite that would serve British interests C. Imperialism in China a. European imperialism began early; Europeans forced favorable trade agreements at gunpoint, set up treaty ports where Europeans lived and worked under own jurisdiction, and established outposts of European missionary activity b. The Opium Trade i. Opium provided direct link among British, British India, and China; opium was one of few commodities that Europeans could sell in China and became crucial to balance of EastWest trade ii. When British conquered northeast India, they annexed one of world’s richest opiumgrowing areas and became deeply involved in trade; trade not only profitable but key to triangular EuropeanIndianChinese economic relationship iii. China government attempted to control opium problem and banned imports as well as domestic production, which set Chinese emperor on a collision course with British opium traders iv. The Opium Wars 1. Dispute over drug trade highlighted larger issues of sovereignty and economic status 2. Europeans bypassed Chinese monopolies, leading to war several times over course of century 3. Surrendering privileges to Europeans and Japanese undermined authority of Chinese Qing emperor and heightened popular hostility to foreign intruders 4. War devastated China’s agricultural heartland c. The Boxer Rebellion i. Western perspective, most important of nineteenthcentury rebellions against corruptions of foreign rule was Boxer Rebellion; provoked spark for loosely organized but widespread uprising in northern China ii. Rebellion mobilized a global response; Europe’s Great powers drew together to repress Boxer movement, then demanded indemnities, new trading concessions, and reassurances from Chinese government iii. Antiimperialist movement that testified to the vulnerability of European’s imperial power; imperial expansion was showing destabilizing effects d. Russian Imperialism i. Russia championed policy of annexation of lands bordering on the existing Russian state throughout nineteenth century; southward colonization brought large Muslim populations in central Asia into Russian empire ii. Russian expansion also moved east; national humiliation during Russo Japanese War helped provoke a revolt in Russia and led to an American brokered peace treaty D. The French Empire and the Civilizing Mission a. French colonialism in northern Africa began before new imperialism in late nineteenth century; economic activity was for European benefit b. Settlers and French government did not pursue common goals; made colony a department of France which gave French settlers full rights to republican citizenship, and also gave them power to pass laws in Algeria c. Colonial lobby groups and politicians became increasingly adamant about benefits of colonialism d. Establishment of a Federation of French West Africaloosely organized administration to govern an area nine times the size of France; French control remained uneven e. Embarked on ambitious public works projects, called “enhancing the value” of the region which was part of the civilizing mission of the modern republic; plainly served French interests, but not often successful E. The “Scramble for Africa” and The Congo a. French expansion into West Africa was only one instance of Europe’s voracity on the African continent b. The Congo Free State i. British formed new imperial relationships in north and west of Africa and along southern and eastern coasts; opened whole Congo River basin to commercial exploitation ii. Ground rules for a new phase of European economic and political expansion; Congo valleys open to free trade and commerce; slave trade suppressed in favor of free labor; Congo Free State set up denying region to formal control of any single European country iii. Workers from “free” African labor placed in equally bad conditions as those in older slave trade; labored in appalling conditions and hundreds of thousands died iv. Scandal of Congo became too great to go unchallenged; Belgium forced to take direct control of Congo, turning it into a Belgian colony c. The Partition of Africa i. Occupation of Congo pressured other colonial powers into expanding their holdings ii. French aimed to move west to east across continent, and Britain’s part in scramble too place largely in southern and eastern Africa iii. Cecil Rhodes pursued two great personal and imperial goals: build a southern African empire founded on diamonds, and to have a British presence along the whole of eastern Africa, symbolized by goal of a Cape toCairo railway iv. Each European power brought more and more of Africa under direct colonial control v. Partition of Africa most striking instance of new imperialism, with broad consequences for subject peoples of European colonies and international order as a whole F. Imperial Culture a. Imperialism thoroughly anchored in culture; empire played an important part in establishing European identity during these years b. Sense of high moral purpose not restricted to male writers or figures of authority; women’s reform movements were full of references to empire and the civilizing mission c. Imperialism and Racial Thought i. Imperial culture gave new prominence to racial thinking; Gobineau claimed humans originally divided into three racesblack, white, and yellow; white superior, others degenerate and no longer capable of civilization ii. Darwin and Herbert Spencer sought to explain differences of individual races iii. Increasingly scientific racism of Europe made it easier for many to reconcile rhetoric of process, individual freedom, and civilizing mission with contempt for other peoples d. Opposition to Imperialism i. Most defiant antiimperialist action was London PanAfrican conference; brought rhetoric used earlier to abolish slavery to bear on tactics of European imperialism; grew rapidly after First World War e. Colonial Cultures i. Imperialism created new colonial cultures in other parts of the world; new hybrid cultures emerged ii. People on both sides of colonial divide worried about preserving national traditions and identity in face of hybrid and changing colonial cultures iii. Chinese elites found dilemmas heightening as imperialism became a more powerful force iv. British, French, and Dutch authorities worried that too much familiarity between colonized and colonizer would weaken European prestige and authority v. Prohibitions such as affairs of European men and local women increased gap between public façade of colonial rule and private reality of colonial lives G. Crises of Empire at the Turn of the Twentieth Century a. Crises created sharp tensions among western nation and drove imperial nations to expand economic and military commitments in territories overseas b. Fashoda i. British and French armies nearly went to war; France saw previous British victory in Sudan as a threat, and challenged British claims in area ii. Matter resolved diplomatically; France ceded southern Sudan to Britain in exchange for a stop to further expansion c. Ethiopia i. Italians set out to conquer Ethiopia, the last major independent African kingdom; Italians forced to divide forces into separate columns, and Ethiopians moved over mountains, attacking and destroying Italian armies completely ii. Important symbol for African political radicals d. South Africa: The Boer War i. Competition between Dutch settlers in South Africa (Boers) and British led to a shooting war between Europeans ii. British unprepared for ferocity of Boer resistance; British columns shot to pieces and towns of Ladysmith and Mafeking were besieged iii. British replaced commanders and began to fight in deadly earnest with Afrikaners who fought in a costly guerrilla war; British tactics became more brutal and set up concentration camps, which aroused opposition in Britain and internationally iv. Afrikaners ceded control of republics to a new British Union of South Africa that gave them a share of political power e. U.S. Imperialism: The SpanishAmerican War of 1898 i. American imperialism closely bound up with nation building, conquest of new territories, and defeat of North American Indians ii. US provoked Mexico into war over Texas and California after unsuccessfully trying to purchase the territories; Mexico’s defeat gave American southwest to US iii. Spain considerably weakened as an imperial power; US declared war on Spain, determined to protect economic interest in Americas an Pacific; US swiftly won iv. Followed by annexation of Puerto Rico, establishment of protectorate over Cuba, and short but brutal war against Philippine rebels v. US intervened in a rebellion in Panama built Panama Canal which cemented US dominance of seas in Western Hemisphere and eastern Pacific H. Conclusion a. Last quarter of nineteenth century saw new stage of relationship between Western nations and rest of the world; distinguished by rapid extension of formal Western control, new forms of economic exploitation, and new patterns of social discipline and settlement b. Western expansion never unchallenged; imperialism provoked resistance and required constantly changing strategies of rule
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