Lecture 10 Notes
Lecture 10 Notes BMSP 2135
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jess on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BMSP 2135 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Dr. Theresa Gillian in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology in Biomedical Sciences at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
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Date Created: 10/14/16
Chapter 10 Lecture Notes The Muscular System About 600 skeletal About half of body weight Three kinds: o Skeletal o Cardiac o Smooth Purpose to convert chemical energy in ATP into mechanical energy of motion Myology- study of muscular system Functions Movement Stability Control of openings and passageways Heat production by skeletal muscles Connective Tissue of a Muscle Endomysium o Thin sleeve of loose connective tissue o Surrounds each muscle fiber Perimysium o Slightly thicker layer o Surrounds each fascicle Epimysium o Fibrous sheath surrounding the entire muscle Fascia o Sheet of connective tissue that separates neighboring muscles o Strength of a muscle and the direction of its pill are determined partly by the orientation of its fascicles o Classification of Muscles According to Fascicle Orientation Fusiform muscles Parallel muscles Triangular muscles Pennate muscles Circular muscles Muscle Attachments Tendons o Indirect attachment o Muscle ends and bones o Aponeurosis Tendon is broad, flat sheet o Retinaculum Connective tissue band that tendons from separate muscles pass under Direct fleshy attachment to bone o Little separation o Muscle seems to immerge directly from bone Functional Groups Action o Effects produced by a muscle Produce or prevent movement Prime mover (agonist) o Muscle that produces most of fore during a joint action Synergist o Muscle that aids the prime mover o Stabilizes the nearby joint o Modifies the direction of movement Antagonist o Opposes the prime mover o Relaxes to give prime mover control over an action o Preventing excessive movement and injury o Antagonistic pairs- muscles that act on opposite sides of a joint Fixator o Muscle that prevents movement of bone Intrinsic Muscles o Entirely contained within a region, such as the hand Extrinsic Muscles o Act on a designated region, but has its origin elsewhere Muscle Innervation Innervation of a muscle o Refers to the identity of the nerve that stimulates it o Enables the diagnosis of nerve, spinal cord, and brainstem injuries from their effects on muscle formation Spinal nerves o Arise from the spinal cord o Emerge through intervertebral foramina o Innervate muscles below the neck o Plexus Web-like network of spinal nerves adjacent to the vertebral column Cranial nerves o Arise from the base of the brain o Emerge through skill foramina o Innervate the muscles of the head and neck o Numbered I to XII Muscles of Facial Expression Muscles that insert in the dermis and subcutaneous tissues Tense the skin and produce facial expressions Innervated by facial nerve (CN VII) Paralysis causes face to sag Found in scalp, forehead, around the eyes, nose and mouth, and in the neck Muscles of Chewing and Swallowing Extrinsic muscles o Tongue is very agile organ o Pushes food between molars for chewing (mastication) o Forces food into the pharynx for swallowing (deglutition) o Crucial importance to speech Intrinsic Muscle o Vertical, transverse, and longitudinal fascicles Four pairs of muscles produce the biting and chewing movements of the mandible o Depression o Elevation o Protraction o Retraction o Lateral and medial excursion Innervated by mandibular nerve o Branch of the trigeminal (V) Hyoid Muscles Aspects of chewing, swallowing, and vocalizing 8 pairs of hypoid muscles associated with hyoid bone Digastric o Opens mouth widely Geniohyoid o Depresses mandible Mylohyoid o Elevates floor of mouth at beginning of swallowing Stylohyoid o Elevated hyoid Infrahyoid Group o Fix hyoid bone from below o Allow suprahyoid muscles to open mouth Omohyoid Depresses hyoid after elevation Sternohyid Depresses hyoid after elevation Thyrohyoid Depresses hyoid and elevates larynx Sternothyroid Depresses larynx after elevation Muscles of Pharynx 3 pairs pharyngeal constrictors o Encircle pharynx forming a muscular funnel o During swallowing drive food into the esophagus Muscles Acting on the Head Originate on the vertebral column, thoracic cage, and pectoral girdle Insert on the cranial bones Actions o Flexion o Extension o Lateral flexion o Rotation Contralateral movement o Moving the head towards the opposite side Ipsilateral movement o Moving head toward the same side Neck flexors Neck extensors Muscles of Respiration Use of muscles enclosing thoracic cavity Inspiration Expiration “know which muscles it involves” Diaphragm o Muscular dome between thoracic and abdominal cavities o Muscle fascicles extend to a fibrous central tendon o Contraction flattens diaphragm Enlarges thoracic cavity (inspiration) o In relaxation of diaphragm it rises Shrinks the thoracic cavity (expiration) Intercostals o External Elevates ribs Expand thoracic cavity Create partial vacuum causing inflow of air o Internal Depresses and retracts ribs Compresses thoracic cavity Expelling air o Innermost Same action as internal Muscles Acting on Shoulder and Upper Limb Compartments o Spaces in which muscles are organized and are separated by fibrous connective tissue sheets (fasciae) Muscles of upper limbs divided into anterior and posterior compartments Muscles of lower limbs divided into anterior, posterior, medial, and lateral compartments Intermuscular septa (thick fascia) separates compartments Compartment syndrome o One of the muscles or blood vessels in a compartment is injured Shoulder o Originate on axial skeleton o Insert on clavicle and scapula o Scapula loosely attached to thoracic cage Capable of great movement Rotation, elevation, depression, protraction, retraction o Clavicle braces the shoulder and moderates movements Arm o 9 muscles cross the shoulder joint and insert on humerus o 2 are axial muscles because they originate on axial skeleton Pectoralis major Latissimus dorsi o 7 scapular muscles o Originate on scapula Deltoid Teres major Coracobrachialis Remaining 4 form rotator cuff Forearm o Elbow and forearm capable of flexion, extension, pronation, and supination o Muscles with bellies in the brachium Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Flexor retinaculum o Bracelet-like fibrous sheet that the flexor tendons of the extrinsic muscles that flex the wrist pass on their way to their insertions Carpal tunnel o Tight space between the flor retinaculum and the carpal bones Flexor tendons passing through the tunnel are enclosed in tendon sheaths Carpal tunnel syndrome o Prolonged, repetitive motions of wrist and fingers can cause tissues in the carpal tunnel to become inflamed, swollen, or fibrotic Puts pressure on median nerve of the wrist Muscles Acting on the Hip and Lower Limb Largest muscles found in lower limb Less for precision, more for strength Several cross and act on two or more joints Leg Foot Muscles Acting on the Knee and Leg Anterior (extensor) compartment of the thigh o Contains quadriceps femoris Most powerful muscle in the body Has 4 heads Prime mover of knee extension o Sartorius Longest muscle Intrinsic muscles of the foot Four ventral muscle layers Support for arches o Abduct and adduct toes o Flex toes One dorsal muscle Athletic Injuries Muscles and tendons are vulnerable to sudden and intense stress Proper condition and warm-up needed Common injuries; o Compartment syndrome o Shinsplints o Pulled hamstrings o Tennis elbow o Pulled groin o Rotator cuff injury Treat with rest, ice, compression and elevation (RICE) “no pain, no gain” is a dangerous misconception
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