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CHEM 101 Lecture Notes Week 4

by: spencer.kociba

CHEM 101 Lecture Notes Week 4 CHEM 101

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Electron configuration, energy levels, orbitals, trends in the periodic table, effective nuclear charges, covalent diameter/radius and Van der Waals diameter/radius
General Chemistry
Monica Ilies
Class Notes
General Chemistry, Chemistry, atoms and elements, Ionization energy, periodic table trends, electron configuration
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by spencer.kociba on Friday October 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 101 at Drexel University taught by Monica Ilies in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views.

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Date Created: 10/14/16
Spencer Kociba CHEM 101 Lecture notes Lecture 10/11/16 ○ Nuclear charge increases as the distance between the  electron of interest and the nucleus decreases ● “D” has 5 pairs of electrons→ 10 electrons in each d level ● 1s 2s 2 p 3s 3p 2 ○ 1s through 2p are the core electrons, 3s and 3 p are the  valence electrons (outermost shell) ● ***NOTE d orbitals are not included in valence electron count ○ Ex.  ...4s 3d3 → the number of valence electrons=2 ○ (only s and p levels count for the valence electrons) ● D block= Rows 4­7, Columns 3­12 ● F block=Atomic numbers 58­103 2 2 6 2 5 ● Cl=1s 2s 2 p 3s 3p 2 5 ○ Or  [Ne]3s 3 p ○ ^^this is called Noble Gas Notation, it’s just shorthand  when writing out the electron configurations for elements with many  orbital levels ● Transition metals electron configuration ○ Expected 2 4 ■ Cr= [Ar]4s 3d ■ 2 9 Cu=[Ar]4s 3d ○ Actual ■   Cr=[Ar]4s 3d 1 5 ■ Cu=[Ar]4s 3d1 10 ○ Transition elements’ actual electrons and electron  configuration are different from the expected and theoretical ■ Electrons try to fill/empty the outermost d  shell to go into a lower energy state ■ Ex. Cu valence electron configuration= 4s 3d 10 ● D is filled even though s is not ● Halogens=column 17 (highly reactive because they only need one  electron to complete their outer shell ● Alkali metals=column 1 (highly reactive because they only need to lose  one electron) ● Alkaline earth metals=column 2 Spencer Kociba CHEM 101 Lecture notes Lecture 10/13/16 Concepts: trends in the periodic table, effective nuclear charges, covalent  diameter/radius and Van der Waals diameter/radius ● Effective nuclear charge ○ Z❑ effS ■ Z❑ effis the effective nuclear charge ■ Z is the actual nuclear charge (protons) ■ S is the charge screened by other electrons  (electrons) ■ → =increasing in this direction ● Trends in the periodic table ○ Ionization Energy (IE or E❑ ) i ■ Qualitatively defined as the amount of  energy necessary to remove an electron of an isolated gaseous  atom to form a cation ■ Group 2 has slightly higher IE values than  expected because it is easier to remove a single electron from  an orbital than it is to remove an electron by splitting up a pair ■ Group 16 has slightly lower IE values than  expected ■ When you get a full or an empty shell, the  IE increases dramatically because you are left with a noble gas  core (where removing the core electrons takes A LOT of energy) ■ → =increasing in this direction ■ Remember: there are exceptions to this  rule, but generally speaking it follows this trend ○ Electron Affinity ■ An element’s likelihood of gaining an  electron ■ Trends ● Noble gases are nearly 0  because their outermost shell is full ● Group 15 is less than 14 and  16 because at group 15, the electrons must begin pairing  in the p level ● Group 2 (alkaline earth  metals) are lower because the s level is already full so  the new electron must go to the p level ○ Atomic Radii ■ NOTE: Ionization energy is the greatest  when AR is the smallest ■ → =increasing in this direction ○ Density ■ → =increasing in this direction ○ Metallic Character ■ → =increasing in this direction ● Cations ○ Positively charged particle ○ Formed through the loss of electrons (related to  Ionization Energy) ○ Usually metals form cations ○ # of protons > # of electrons ○ Decreasing of the electrons=protons attract the remaining electrons closer to the nucleus (the atomic radius decreases) ○ MEMORY TIP: ca­t­ion/me­t­als=+ charge ● Anion ○ # of protons < # of electrons ○ Element gains electrons (related to Electron Affinity) ○ Usually nonmetals form anions ○ Increasing the electrons means the protons can’t pull in  the electrons as well so the electrons spread out and the atomic radius  increases ○ MEMORY TIP: prefix an= non/opposite=negative  charge/nonmetals


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